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ISM’s and Upheaval

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ISM’s and Upheaval

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  1. ISM’s and Upheaval

  2. Aftermath of Napoleonic Wars

  3. European Balance of Power • Congress of Vienna: Quadruple Alliance met to establish a peace settlement after defeat of Napoleon’s France • 1st Peace of Paris • Gave France boundaries it had in 1792 • France didn’t pay war reparations • Barriers against Aggression • Victors each get some French territory • 2nd Peace of Paris • France lost territory • France paid 700 million francs • Large army occupation for five years • Moderation toward France motivated by self-interest and traditional ideas about balance of power • Quadruple Alliance to meet periodically  “Congress System”

  4. Repressing the Revolutionary Spirit • Holy Alliance created as a symbol of repression of liberal and revolutionary movements • Successful revolutions in Spain led Metternich and Alexander to call for active intervention to maintain autocratic regimes • Carlsbad Decrees in 1819: requires 38 German member states to root out subversive ideas in universities and newspapers

  5. Metternich and Conservatism • Pessimistic view of human nature; prone to error, excess and self-serving behavior • Strong governments a necessity to protect society • Liberalism dangerous b/c it led to national self-determination which threatened to destroy Austrian empire and Central Europe • Austrian Empire had large population and vast territories but many and potentially dissatisfied nationalities  oppose liberalism and nationalism

  6. Spread of Radical Ideas

  7. Liberalism and the Middle Class • Demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy; equality before the law as opposed to legally separate classes • Constitutional Charter in France and Great Britain’s Parliament • Opponents: criticized economic principles of no government interference • Middle Class • Economic Liberalism embraced by business groups who used it to defend their actions within factories • Narrow Class interests: representative gov’t but only propertied men could vote

  8. Growing Appeal of Nationalism • Johann Gottfried von Herder: people had its own genius and own cultural unity • How to turn perceived cultural unity into political reality • Developed industrial and urban society • Standard national language • Minority groups pushing for nation-state status • “Imagined communities” • Also believed liberalism or democratic republicanism • Every nation had right to exist in freedom • We vs. They  National superiority

  9. French Utopian Socialism • Against selfish individualism and isolated fragments of community • Key Aspects of Socialism • Economic planning, desire to help the poor, state regulation • Count Henri de Saint-Simon • Key to progress was proper social organization • Charles Fourier • Social utopia of precise communities with 1,620 people • Louis Blanc • Organization of Work asked workers to fight for universal voting rights • Government needs to set up workshops • Pierre Joseph Proudhon • What is Property? –Property is theft, stolen from the worker

  10. Birth of Marxian Socialism • Communist Manifesto is bible of socialism • Early socialists appealed to middle class and state to help the poor … naïve! • Society is split between bourgeoisie and proletariat and predicted that proletariat would overthrow bourgeoisie • “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, UNITE!”

  11. Romantic Movement

  12. Romanticism’s Tenets • Revolt against emphasis on rationality, order, and restraint that characterized Enlightenment and classicism • Cultural movement compatible with political beliefs • Characterized by: • emotional intensity • rejection of materialism of refined society • great individualism • conception of nature • full development of one’s unique potential • study of history

  13. Literature • William Wordsworth: Lyrical Ballads – “Daffodils” • Simplicity and love of nature that can be appreciated by everyone • Victor Hugo • The Hunchback of Notre Dame: equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics • George Sand • Search for self-fulfillment and individualism

  14. Art and Music • Eugene Delacroix • Dramatic scenes that stirred emotions, exotic subjects, sensuous women • Joseph M.W. Turner • Depicted nature’s power and terror; wild storms and sinking ships • John Constable • Gentle landscapes in which humans were at peace with environment • Ludwig van Beethoven • Romantic composer who used contrasting themes and tones to produce dramatic conflict and inspiring resolutions

  15. Reforms and Revolutions before 1848

  16. National Liberation in Greece • Greeks living under domination of Ottoman Turks for 400 years; united by language and religion • Great Powers initially refuse to help but eventually give their support • Ask Turks to sign an armistice but Turks refuse so the navies trap Turkish Fleet at Navarino and destroy it • Russian protectorate over present-day Romania • Greece independent by 1830

  17. Liberal Reform in Great Britain • British society very undemocratic and interest for political reform began to rise • French Revolution causes aristocracy to panic and become hostile to change • Britain unable to import cheap grain from Eastern Europe, leading to high prices and large profits for landed aristocracy • Corn Laws: prohibited importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose to improbable levels • Benefiting the aristocracy but making food prices high for working people • Triggered many protests and demonstrations  Battle of Peterloo • Whig Party passes Reform Bill of 1832 that increased number of male voters by about 50 percent • Anti-Corn Law League: liberals argued that lower food prices and more jobs in industry depended on repeal of Corn Laws

  18. Ireland and Great Famine • Peasants in Ireland were extremely poor and lived on potatoes but had no incentives to make any improvements • Landlords leased for short period so any extra profit would be taken by higher rent • Diseases in potato crop led to Great Famine and Irish population growth was shattered • Government continued to collect taxes, rent was high, and tenants were evicted • Increase in nationalism

  19. Revolution of 1830 in France • Constitutional Charter was liberal constitution • Protected gains made by French Revolution, great intellectual freedom, and parliament with upper and lower houses was created • Not democratic; 100,000 of 30 million could vote • Charles X re-established old order and turned to military action to do so • Sent troops to Algiers to raise nationalism and gain popular support • Charles also refused to acknowledge Constitutional Charter in 1830 and stripped much of wealthy middle class of voting rights and censored the press  government collapsed • Louis Philippe became King of the French people

  20. Revolutions of 1848

  21. A Democratic Republic in France • Louis Philippe’s monarchy had been inactive and complacent • Only the rich voted which led to a sense of class injustice • People demanded a new government and were joined by National Guard • Ten-man executive committee created and worked on drafting constitution for France’s Second Republic • Every male votes, free all slaves in colonies, abolition of death penalty and established a 10 hour workday • People pushed for government sponsored workshops that were eventually dissolved leading to class war and establishment of strong executive, Louis Napoleon

  22. Austrian Empire in 1848 • Liberals demanded written constitutions, representative government, and greater civil liberties  urban workers and students allied with middle-class liberals and peasants led the charge • Hungary in 1848 – nationalistic Hungarians demand national autonomy, full civil liberties and universal suffrage • Ferdinand I promised reforms and liberal constitution but revolutionaries lost interest when monarchy abolished serfdom • Revolutionaries pushed for unified, centralized, Hungarian nation but minority groups were pitted against each other by government and this never happened

  23. Prussia and the Frankfurt Assembly • Goal of middle-class Prussian liberals was to create liberal constitutional monarchy • Frederick William IV promised a liberal constitution and a new national German state • Workers wanted more, aristocracy wanted less • Workers issued democratic and socialist demands that worried middle-class • Prussian Constituent Assembly met in Berlin to write constitution and liberals from German states began writing German federal constitution • Denmark claimed territory in German states and National Assembly called on Prussian army to oppose Denmark and war was on • National Assembly allows King Frederick William to be elected emperor and he tries to reassert his royal power to get elected on his own but he fails and German Confederation is re-established • Attempt to unite Germans fail miserably