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THE INSTITUTE OF CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS OF SRI LANKA . Thilanka Warnakulasooriya B.Com Special (Col), ACA . POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND FINANCE - 2013/2014 Principles of Financial and Cost Accounting. Accounting for Overhead.

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the institute of chartered accountants of sri lanka

THE INSTITUTE OF CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS OF SRI LANKA

Thilanka WarnakulasooriyaB.Com Special (Col), ACA

POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS AND FINANCE - 2013/2014Principles of Financial and Cost Accounting

accounting for overhead
Accounting for Overhead

Overhead is the Expenditure incurred in the course of making a product, providing a service or running a department, but which cannot be traced directly and fully to the product, service or department

classification of overhead
Classification of Overhead
  • Overhead can be classified under 3 basis

Overhead

Element Base

Indirect Material

Indirect Labor

Indirect Expense

Behavior based

Fixed Overhead

Variable OH

Semi-Variable

OH

Function Based

Production OH

Administration OH

Selling & Distribution OH

General OH

overhead allocation apportionment absorption
Overhead Allocation, apportionment & absorption
  • Steps.
  • Identify OH cost & Accumulate the cost

i.e. Rent , Electricity,

  • Identify the Cost Center of the Organization

Identify the activity or item or equipment where the cost are accumulated.

Cost centers can be either production cost center or service cost center

i.e Garment Factory

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3. Allocation of OH cost to cost centers

  • Some OH can be directly identify to a particular cost centers. Accordingly that OH cost can be allocated to that cost center called “allocation”

i.e. Cutting supervisor salary directly identified to the cutting cost center

4. Apportioning overhead cost to cost centers

Some OH can not be directly identified to particular cost center. Accordingly such cost should be shared among the cost centers. These cost should be divided among cost centers based on most reasonable basis.

(Apportionment of overhead is distribution of overheads to more than one cost centre on some equitable basis)

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i.e. Garment factory monthly electricity bill was Rs. 200,000. Factory consist of 4 cost centers . The floor area occupied by each cost center are as follows.

Apportion the electricity between cost centers.

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5. Reapportioning the service cost centre cost to production cost centers.

Service cost centers cost should charged to production cost centers since salable units does not pass through service departments. The reasonable apportionment basis should be used

reapportioning the service cost centre cost to production cost centers
Reapportioning the service cost centre cost to production cost centers

Secondary Distribution with reciprocal Servicing overhead absorption rates

To production & service department

Direct Method

Simultaneous Equation Method

Only to Production Department

Repeated Distribution Method

Step Down Method

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6. Calculate the overhead absorption rate & absorb the cost

  • Overhead absorption is the process whereby overhead costs allocated and apportioned to production cost centers are added to unit, job or Cost object.
  • Overhead absorption is sometimes known as overhead recovery
  • Overheads are usually added to costs units using a predetermined overhead absorption rate, which is calculated using figures from the budget.

Overhead absorption rate (OAR)

“Attributing OH to particular product or service based on particular basis”

Generally OAR calculated by dividing the OH cost of the cost center by number of units/ Volume of absorption base which is appropriate for the cost center

calculation of overhead absorption rate
Calculation of overhead absorption rate

OAR = Budgeted Overhead cost

Budgeted volume

  • Estimate the overhead likely to be incurred during the period
  • Estimate the activity level for the period
  • Divide the estimated overhead by the budgeted activity level
  • Absorb the overhead into the cost unit by applying the calculated absorption rate

Ex 06.

There is no ideal OAR, depending on the company some use machine hours or labor hours. The most appropriate OAR depends on factors such as cost, information availability, nature of the product, technology used etc.

choosing the appropriate absorption base
Choosing the appropriate absorption base
  • A percentage of direct materials cost
  • A percentage of direct labor cost
  • A percentage of prime cost
  • A rate per machine hour
  • A rate per direct labor hour
  • A rate per unit
  • A percentage of factory cost (for admin overhead)
  • A percentage of sales or factory cost ( for selling and distribution overhead)
over and under absorption of overheads
Over and under absorption of overheads
  • The rate of overhead absorption is based on estimates ( of both numerator and denominator) and it is quite likely that either one or both of the estimates will nit agree with what actually occurs
    • Over absorption means that the overheads charged to the cost of sales is more than the overheads actually incurred
    • Under absorption means that insufficient overheads have been included in the cost of sales

Actual Overhead incurred xxxx

Overhead absorbed xxxx

(budgeted OAR * actual activity level)

Under/ Over absorption xxx

the reasons for over under absorbed overheads
The reasons for over/under absorbed overheads
  • The overhead absorption rate is predetermined from budget estimates of overhead cost and the expected volume of activity.
  • Over or under recovery of overhead will occur in the following circumstances:-
    • Actual overhead costs are different from budgeted overhead
    • The actual activity level is different from the budgeted activity level
    • Actual overhead costs and actual activity level differ from the budgeted costs and levels
    • i.e . Following information with regard to “ A” Company
    • Budgeted overhead cost per month 80,000
    • Actual Overhead cost per month 70,000
    • Budgeted units plan to produce 10,000
    • Actual units Produced 8,000
    • Calculate over or under absorption of overhead per month