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Bovine Trichomoniasis “Trich or Treat”. Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS Professor and Extension Program Leader for Veterinary Medicine Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M System. Trich. Cattle disease Venereal disease Long-standing endemic disease Increased rate of diagnosis

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bovine trichomoniasis trich or treat

Bovine Trichomoniasis “Trich or Treat”

Floron C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS

Professor and Extension Program Leader for Veterinary Medicine

Texas AgriLife Extension Service

Texas A&M System

trich
Trich
  • Cattle disease
  • Venereal disease
  • Long-standing endemic disease
  • Increased rate of diagnosis
    • Increased infected herds or
    • Heightened test awareness
economic losses
Economic Losses
  • Infected beef herd
    • Smaller calf crops
    • Less uniform calf crops
    • Increased culling costs
    • Increased replacement costs
    • Increased veterinary costs
    • Decreased herd income
      • 20-40% drop
      • $140 loss per cow
  • National beef industry
    • $650M loss per year
cause
Cause
  • A protozoon
    • A single-celled, motile parasite
    • Sperm-head size
    • Pear-shaped
    • Three head hairs (flagellum, trich)
    • One side undulating hair (membrane)
    • One tail hair
  • A trichomonad
    • Tritrichomonas foetus
    • No resistant stage in environment
transmission
Transmission
  • Venereal – bull to cow – cow to bull
    • Infected bulls breed clean cows/heifers
    • Clean bulls breed infected cows (recent aborters)
  • Not cow to cow
  • Not bull to bull
  • Not from environment
bull trichomoniasis
Bull Trichomoniasis
  • Infection – no disease or symptoms
  • Smegma in crypts (microscopic folds)
    • Penis
    • Internal sheath
    • Crypts deepen with age – increases rate of infection
  • Infected for life
    • Persistent infection (PI)
  • Sheath pus discharge (uncommon)
  • “Trich”(no “Treat”)
slide12

Bull’s Age

Older >5 yrs.

4 to 5 yrs.

Young < 4 yrs.

slide13

From Older Bull

Crypt

From Younger Bull

Crypts

cow heifer trichomonosis embryonic absorption
Cow/Heifer TrichomonosisEmbryonic Absorption
  • Disease
  • Colonies – causes mild inflammation (<18 days)
    • Vagina
    • Uterus
    • Oviduct
  • Embryo death – absorption
  • Symptoms
    • Recycles (repeat breeders) (infertility)
  • “Trich”(no “Treat”)
cow heifer trichomonosis fetal abortion
Cow/Heifer TrichomonosisFetal Abortion
  • Disease
  • Colonies – causes severe inflammation (>60 days)
    • Uterus
  • Fetus death – expelled
  • Infected fetus/placenta
  • Symptoms
    • Recycles (repeat breeders) (infertility)
    • Early abortion
    • Uterine pus discharge (uncommon) (PIs)
  • “Trich”(no “Treat”)
herd history
Herd History
  • Abortions (2-3 mos pregnancy)
  • Recycles (repeat breeders)
  • Late calvers
    • Infected for 2-4 mos – cleared
    • Immune response (short-lived)
    • Delayed conception
  • Strung-out calving
  • Open cows
  • Overworked, tired bulls
  • “Trich”(no “Treat”)
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Test bulls
    • >10 days after service
    • Sheath wash – culture test (3 samples)
      • Staggered at 7-14 day intervals
    • Sheath wash – gene test (2 samples)
      • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • Test aborted cows/heifers
    • <30 days after abortion
    • Cervical wash – culture test
  • Test aborted fetus/placenta
    • Stomach/placenta wash – culture test
treatment
Treatment
  • No approved drugs
  • “Trich”(no “Treat”)
control biocontainment
Control – Biocontainment
  • Consultation (producer-private veterinarian-diagnostic laboratory)
    • Testing
    • Culling
    • Vaccinating
      • Killed Vaccine (TrichGuard®, TrichGuard V5-L®
      • Does not prevent infection
      • Helps reduce severity of disease
      • Helps cows/heifers clear infection
      • Does not help bulls clear infection
  • “Trich”(no “Treat”)
prevention biosecurity
Prevention – Biosecurity
  • Consultation (producer-private veterinarian)
    • Replacements
      • Virgin heifers
      • Virgin bulls
      • Pre-entry test bulls
    • Annual test pre-breeding herd bulls
    • Artificial insemination (AI)
    • Good fences
    • Vaccination
      • Killed Vaccine (TrichGuard®, TrichGuard V5-L®
      • Does not prevent infection
      • Helps reduce severity of disease
  • “Treat” (no “Trich”)
state regulations
State Regulations
  • Texas – None (proposed)
  • Reportable disease (15 western states)
    • state entry test requirements (bulls)
    • sale test requirements (bulls only, bulls/cows)

Arizona

California

Colorado

Idaho

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Mexico

  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • Oregon
  • South Dakota
  • Utah
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
tahc s proposed trichomoniasis control program for texas
TAHC’s ProposedTrichomoniasis Control Program for Texas
  • Trich will be a reportable disease in Texas
    • All test results positive and negative must be reported to the TAHC within 48 hours
  • Only certified virgin bulls or test-negative bulls could enter Texas for breeding purposes
    • Bulls must be officially identified.
    • The requirements would be in effect by late March 2009
slide26
Change-of-ownership testing for in-state bulls
    • Bulls must be officially identified
    • Certified virgin bulls exempt
    • Infected bulls go to slaughter within 30 days and be

moved under a permit

    • The requirements would be in effect no earlier than

September 2009

  • The remaining bulls in the herd
    • Isolated from female cattle
    • Until tested and classified as negative
public comments
Public Comments
  • Must arrive at the TAHC no later than by January 30, 2009
  • Be emailed to: comments@tahc.state.tx.us
  • Be faxed to: 512-719-0719
  • Be mailed to: TAHC Comments

Box 12966

Austin, TX 78711-2966

  • The TAHC commissioners will consider the regulation proposals for adoption on February 24, 2009