11th Grade United States History Mr. Weber CSULA Chemistry Bungalow September 29, 2008
Agenda: • Activator, agenda, objective (10 min.) • Mexican/American War Notes (20 min.) • Mexican/American War class argument (20 min) • Zinn Reading (30 min.) • Exit ticket comprehension check (10 min)
Objective • 11.1.4 Students examine the effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction and of the industrial revolution, including demographic shifts and the emergence in the late nineteenth century of the United States as a world power. • Can not understand effects without understanding causes…
Timeline of events leading to Mexican/ American War (notes 20-30 min) • 1821 -- Newly independent Mexico grants slaveholding U.S. settlers land in Texas. Early settlers agree to take Mexican citizenship, convert to Catholicism, and speak Spanish; but some later settlers do not. • 1829-30 -- Mexico stops settlement of Texas by Americans and bans slavery • 1835-36 -- Settlers rebel against Mexican rule and declare independence. Mexico does not recognize Texas independence or a boundary at the Río Grande. • 1836-45 -- Texas as an independent nation is recognized by the United States, Britain, France, and the Netherlands, but not Mexico. • July 1845 -- Texans vote to join the United States. • December 1845 -- Texas is annexed by the United States and becomes the twenty-eighth state. • January 1846 -- U.S. troops occupy territory on the north bank of the Río Grande. • April 1846 -- Mexican calvary troops cross the Río Grande and skirmish with American forces. • May 1846 -- War begins between Mexico and the United States.
Mexican/American War Vocabulary IMPERIALISM • [A].Noun. The actions by which one nation is able to control other usually smaller or weaker nations - im·pe·ri·al·ist. noun or adjective- im·pe·ri·al·is·tic. adjective- im·pe·ri·al·is·ti·cal·ly. adverb -- Webster Student Dictionary. • [B]. Noun. 1. The policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations. 2. The system, policies, or practices of such a government. -- American Heritage Dictionary.
Mexican/American War Vocab. ANNEX • Transitive verb. Inflected forms: an·nexed, an·nex·ing, an·nex·es.1. To append or attach, especially to a larger or more significant thing. 2. To incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country, state, county, or city. 3. To add or attach, as an attribute, condition, or consequence. • - annexation. Noun. -- American Heritage Dictionary. EXPANSIONIST • 1. Noun. A nation's practice or policy of territorial or economic expansion. • - expansionist. Adjective and noun. • - expansionistic. Adjective. -- American Heritage Dictionary.
Mexican/American War Notes Statistics: • U.S. troops: around 80,000. U.S. Generals: Zachary Taylor, Winfield Scott, Stephen Kearney. Number dead: 13,271. Wounded: 4,152. • Mexican troops: 25,000-40,000. Generals: Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, Mariano Arista, Pedro de Ampudia, Jose Maria Flores. Number dead or wounded: 25,000 (Mexican government estimate). • Politics: • U.S. Whig party opposed it. Southern Democrats supported it. Democrats believed in the doctrine of “manifest destiny.”
Timeline of events leading to war • 1821 -- Newly independent Mexico grants slaveholding U.S. settlers land in Texas. Early settlers agree to take Mexican citizenship, convert to Catholicism, and speak Spanish; but some later settlers do not. • 1829-30 -- Mexico stops settlement of Texas by Americans and bans slavery • 1835-36 -- Settlers rebel against Mexican rule and declare independence. Mexico does not recognize Texas independence or a boundary at the Río Grande. • 1836-45 -- Texas as an independent nation is recognized by the United States, Britain, France, and the Netherlands, but not Mexico. • July 1845 -- Texans vote to join the United States. • December 1845 -- Texas is annexed by the United States and becomes the twenty-eighth state. • January 1846 -- U.S. troops occupy territory on the north bank of the Río Grande. • April 1846 -- Mexican calvary troops cross the Río Grande and skirmish with American forces. • May 1846 -- War begins between Mexico and the United States.
Disputed Territory 1830 • Dark purple indicates area of Mexican land grants to U.S. settlers. • Tejano culture develops. • Southern slave states interested in expanding west into Texas.
Independence and Annexation for Texas • Texas declares itself an independent territory. • U.S. Annexes it in 1845. • Mexico and Abolitionists in U.S. claim that “slavepower” made it happen.
1846: Hostilities Begin • Expansionist President Polk wants western territory. • U.S. Troops stationed on Rio Grande in 1846. • Hostilities begin.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 • Mexico lost ½ her nation. • In return, Mexico received $15,000,000 -- less than half the amount the U.S. had attempted to offer Mexico for the land before the opening of hostilities. • Tremendous amount of wealth from natural resources generated from those states.
Mexican/American War was an Act of U.S. Imperialism Class Argument • Everyone stand up. • Make two lines facing one another. • Count off one by one down the line. • Take a minute to study your bullet point. • First team starts by shouting first point at other team. • Other team responds all together “Oh yeah!?”
PERSPECTIVE ONE: MEXICOFrom Dana Lindman and Kyle Ward, History Lessons: How Textbooks from Around the World Portray U.S. History (New York: The New Press, 2004), 72-78. • The war on Mexico was an act of United States imperialism! • One reason for the separation of Texas was U.S. expansionist policies! • The U.S. backed the separatist tendencies of the Texans! • Texan insurgents attacked the Mexican Army in 1835 and declared Texas’independence. • As Mexico fought the Texan rebels, the U.S. recognized the independence of “the Republic of Texas” in 1837. • When the U.S. annexed Texas in 1845 and enlarged its borders at Mexico’s expanse, it began the U.S. intervention in Mexico (1846-1848). • Southern slave states’ interest in expanding their territories in order to control the U.S. Congress caused the military invasion of Mexico! • U.S. support for adventurers, Indians, and military soldiers going to California and New Mexico made tensions between our two countries worse. • President James Polk ordered troops to invade Mexico because she refused to sell New Mexico and California. Congress officially declared war in 1846. • Mexican people were brave and heroic in the war against the United States. • The U.S. paid 15 million pesos, but Mexico lost more than half its territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. (Mexico lost 2.4 million square kilometers total).
PERSPECTIVE TWO: UNITED STATESFrom Joyce Appleby, et al., The American Vision (New York: McGraw Hill, 2007), 307-311. • Congress passed an annexation resolution and Texas joined the Union in 1845. • Mexico was outraged and cut off diplomatic relations with the U.S. • The U.S. and Mexico also disputed the southern boundary of Texas. • President Polk wanted to buy California, but the Mexican president refused to meet. • That insult ended chances of a diplomatic solution Polk ordered troops into southern Texas (and onto disputed territory). • In 1846 Mexican forces attacked U.S. troops. • “American blood has been shed on American soil!” Cried Polk. The U.S. was at war “by the act of Mexico herself.” • There were some opponents but it passed the Senate (40 to 2) and the House (174 to 14). • The U.S. planned a three-pronged attack with a plan to take Mexico City. • The U.S. won military victories, but despite Mexico’s loss of vast territories, she refused to surrender. • Mexico ceded, or gave up, more than 500,000 square miles in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. The U.S. paid $15 million dollars in exchange. • “The dream of manifest destiny was finally realized: the United States now stretched from ocean to ocean.”
Mexican/American War and the U.S. Civil War • Westward Expansion, the Mexican/American War, and the Civil War are all connected. • U.S. Civil War was fought between North and South primarily over issue of slavery. • Big Issue of whether new states would allow slavery and how that would affect the power balance in government.
Independent Reading • Howard Zinn: A People’s History of the United States. • “We Take Nothing by Conquest, Thank God.” • Independent reading pp.149-169. • The Mexican/American War • Reading process: beginning, middle, end • Cornell notes.
Exit Ticket (10 minutes) • 1. Was the Mexican/American War an act of U.S. imperialism? • Provide at least three specific examples. • 2. How was the war connected with the U.S. Civil War?