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Time series of GPS stations. Günter Stangl Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying. For reference, monitoring and geophysics. Some Definitions. GPS = Global Positioning System 2 Frequencies (Between 1-2 GHz) Phase measurements (L1,L2) for precise determination, resolution about 0.5 mm

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time series of gps stations

Time series of GPS stations

Günter Stangl

Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying

For reference, monitoring and geophysics

SRI Seminar 2005

some definitions
Some Definitions
  • GPS = Global Positioning System
  • 2 Frequencies (Between 1-2 GHz)
  • Phase measurements (L1,L2) for precise determination, resolution about 0.5 mm
  • Equipment antennas+receivers
  • Post processing for high accuracy

SRI Seminar 2005

some more definitions
Some more Definitions
  • ITRS = International Terrestrial Reference System (Earth fixed system)
  • ITRF = Representation of ITRS, updated sometimes, presently ITRF2000 (epoch 1997.0), combined solution of VLBI, SLR, GPS and DORIS measurements
  • ETRS89 = European Terrestrial Reference System (Fixed to the “stable“ part of Eurasia, defined 1989), plate velocity removed, “constant” coordinates
  • ETRF = Representation of ETRS, derived from ITRF by GPS, Helmert transformation applied

SRI Seminar 2005

time series
Time Series
  • Coordinates derived from controlled adjustments (orbits fixed)
  • X,Y,Z transformed to φ, λ, h
  • Differences in N(orth), E(ast), U(p)
  • Neglecting correlations in space and time
  • Restricted to permanent stations
  • Total zenith delays for climatology (In Europe standardized)
  • Main target: station velocities (needed for ITRF definition)
  • Additional use for station monitoring (jumps) and geodynamics (plate motions)

SRI Seminar 2005

systematic effects on station coordinates
Different Reference Frames

Different Antenna Definitions

Modeling Errors

Seasonal Variations

Site Problems (Equipment, Monumentation, Atmosphere)

Orbits and Clocks before 1992

Orbits and Clocks 1992-2004

Different Adjustments

About 20 mm

About 10 mm

About 5 mm

Up to 10 mm

Up to 30 mm

Height 60 mm

About 50 mm

Up to 30 mm

Up to 20 mm

Systematic effects on station coordinates

SRI Seminar 2005

removing procedures
Removing procedures
  • Reference frame transformation (identical sites)
  • Recomputation with calibrated antenna values
  • Recomputation with corrected orbits
  • Combined adjustment solutions
  • Detrending (velocities)

SRI Seminar 2005

igs station map
IGS station map

SRI Seminar 2005

epn station map
EPN station map

SRI Seminar 2005

slide9

IGS station velocity map

SRI Seminar 2005

slide10

NUVEL (2D) Plate Motions

derived from geology

SRI Seminar 2005

example bahrain itrf2000 short term
Example BahrainITRF2000 short term

North

East

Up

SRI Seminar 2005

example graz itrf2000
Example GrazITRF2000

SRI Seminar 2005

earthquake signal
Earthquake Signal

Earthquake shift

some decimeters

SRI Seminar 2005

pseudo earthquake signal
Pseudo-Earthquake Signal

Receiver change and earthquake nearby

SRI Seminar 2005

equipment effects
Equipment Effects

SRI Seminar 2005

periodic effects
Periodic Effects

SRI Seminar 2005

examples from austria
Examples from Austria

+ 20 stations from

Germany, Slovenia, Switzerland

+ 5 new stations/year

SRI Seminar 2005

slide22

HFLK (Hafelekar )

Monumentation in bedrock

  • Permanent since October 1994, constructed by ZAMG Wien
  • 1994: Minirogue
  • 1997: Turborogue
  • 1999: Trimble
  • Software: Terrasat
  • Permanentstation for:
  • IGS since 1994
  • EPN since 1996
  • APOS RTK since 2004

SRI Seminar 2005

slide23

RTMN (Rottenmann)

Monumentation on building

  • Permanent since September 1999; financed by city of Rottenmann
  • 9/1999: Trimble
  • 11/1999: Z-18
  • Software: Terrasat

SRI Seminar 2005

local effects 1
Local Effects (1)

Danube Alluvium

Gradual sinking

SRI Seminar 2005

local effects 2
Local Effects (2)

Rock instability

Overlay of seasonal

(frost) and rock gliding effects ?

(Station height 3 600 m)

SRI Seminar 2005

human errors and strange effects
Human Errors and Strange Effects

My failure

wrong antenna type

?

Probably Snow/Ice

But wrong direction

SRI Seminar 2005

summary space domain
Summary Space Domain
  • Remove outliers and movements for reference determination
  • Remove outliers and reference jumps for velocity estimation
  • Remove outliers, reference jumps and known global velocities for regional (intraplate) motions
  • Remove all known features and you‘ll find new ones (?)
  • Which colour has the noise?

SRI Seminar 2005

summary frequency domain
Summary Frequency Domain
  • You can have white noise coordinates!
  • Possible sources of non-white noise:
  • - Receiver misbehaviour (Channels)
  • - Adjustment procedures (models, orbits)
  • - Monumentation (temperature, ice)
  • - Underground (´water level)
  • - Unmodelled weather effects (Foehn)

SRI Seminar 2005