Road permeability issues and solutions for migrating ungulates
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Road permeability issues and solutions for migrating ungulates. David Rosengarten. Winter Ecology – Spring 2008 Mountain Research Station – University of Colorado, Boulder. General Negative Effects Of Roads. Mortality from construction and collisions Habitat fractionation

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Road permeability issues and solutions for migrating ungulates

Road permeability issues and solutions for migrating ungulates

David Rosengarten

Winter Ecology – Spring 2008

Mountain Research Station – University of Colorado, Boulder


General negative effects of roads
General Negative Effects Of Roads ungulates

  • Mortality from construction and collisions

  • Habitat fractionation

  • Modified animal behavior

  • Exotic species introduction

  • Restriction of wildlife movement

  • Reduction of gene flow, biodiversity


Methods of observing crossings
Methods of Observing Crossings ungulates

  • GPS

  • Video

  • Tracks

  • Collisions


Seasonal ranges
Seasonal Ranges ungulates


Why did the ungulate cross the road
Why Did The Ungulate Cross The Road? ungulates

Seasonal differences in crossing frequencies demonstrate winter effect on mammals

A different study observed this trend as well in elk and deer, observing 3077 crossings in the summer and only 494 in winter. (Clevenger 2004)

Graph of crossing elk/approaching elk by month (Dodd 2007)


Factors influencing crossing frequency and location
Factors Influencing Crossing Frequency and Location ungulates

Elk

  • Season

  • Tolerance

  • Gender

  • Nutrients

  • Human

  • Traffic

  • Weekday

  • Fences

  • Crossing structures

There is a lot of interaction between and within these two sets of factors


Crossing structure design
Crossing Structure Design ungulates

Placement:

Habitat quality has shown a relation to preferred crossing areas

Dimensions:

The design of a structure will determine what animals are willing/able to use it

Limitations:

Requirements of different species require high variability in crossing structure design


Conclusions
Conclusions ungulates

  • Although a severe ecological barrier, roads are crossed by mammals due to larger forcings

  • Seasonality has a large influence on ungulate movement and sensitivity to roads

  • Crossing structures can mitigate this effect but much more work needs to be done to determine the most effective methods


Works cited
Works Cited ungulates

  • S.M. Alexander, N.M. Waters. “The effects of highway transportation corridors on wildlife: a case study of Banff National Park” Transportation Research Part C 8 (2000) 307±320

  • A.P. Clevenger, N. Waltho. “Performance indices to identify attributes of highway crossing structures facilitating movement of large mammals” Biological Conservation 121 (2005) 453–464

  • N.L. Dodd, J.W. Gagnon, A.L. Manzo, R.E. Schweinsburg. “Video Surveillance to Assess Highway Underpass Use by Elk in Arizona” JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 71-2 (2007) 637–645

  • N.L.Dodd, J.W. Gagnon, S. Boe, E.E. Schweinsburg. “Characteristics of elk-vehicle collisions and comparison to GPS-determined highway crossing patterns” (2005) http://repositories.cdlib.org/jmie/roadeco/Dodd2005a

  • S.C. Trombulak, C.A. Frissell. “Review of Ecological Effects of Roads on Terrestrial and Aquatic Communities” Conservation Biology V 14 no.1 (2000) 18-30

  • USDA “American Elk (Cervus elaphus)” Fish and Wildlife Habitat Management Leaflet no. 11 (1999)