Maintenance of Landscape 22.00 Maintain newly planted plants in a given environment 25.00 Prune ornamental plants to maintain an attractive landscape
What is landscape maintenance? • Landscape maintenance includes watering, fertilizing, mulching, pest control, mowing, edging, winterization and pruning of landscape plants.
Watering Landscape Plants • Watering should be done at planting and frequently for a few days to prevent roots from drying out and plant wilting. Then less often only as needed. • After plants are established watering should be infrequent and enough to wet soil 12”-16” deep. Different plants have different water needs.
Fertilization of Landscape Plants • Fertilizer should be mixed in back fill soil at planting for shrubs and trees and in soil bed for annuals and perennials. • Fertilization is not usually needed for established trees, but it should be done by making holes with a drill or soil tube about 12” deep and at 24” intervals around the tree at the canopy drip line where needed.
Fertilization of Landscape Plants • Shrubs may need small amounts of low analysis fertilizer, but not late in the growing season. • Most lawns need fertilizer.
Mulching • Mulching should be done at planting and replaced as needed. • Mulch must be replaced over time as it decays.
Pest Control • Pest control is necessary to control damage from insects, diseases, weeds, and rodents. • For most landscape plants, pest control is done is done by treating the beds and other areas with chemicals to prevent weeds, insects and diseases before planting and as observed later.
Mowing Lawns • Mowing lawns at the correct height for the type of grass and frequently enough to prevent damage is a key to maintaining lawn.
Edging • Edging makes a sharp line of separation between a planting and the lawn. • Can be done with tools or with an edging material such as plastic • Edging materials should be installed at planting time.
Winterization • Prepares the plants for winter or freezing weather. • Fertilizing early in growing season prevents soft new growth that will die in winter, mulching, pruning, adequate watering, and pest control all help plants survive freezing temperatures of winter.
Pruning • Pruning is done to improve appearance and health and to control size and shape of plants. • Pruning is usually done in off-seasons when more labor is available. However, some plants have to be pruned at specific times. • Early spring blooming shrubs should be pruned as soon as flowers fall off so that new buds can form for next year. • Plants that have high sap pressure in early spring such as maples, birches, etc. should not be pruned in the spring.
Pruning • Damaged branches of trees and shrubs should be removed as soon as possible to prevent more damage to the plant. • Newly planted shrubs should be shaped.
Principles of Pruning • Shrubs that produce flowers on wood grown the previous season should be pruned immediately after flowers fall off the plant. • Examples: • Forsythia • Azaleas • Spirea
Principles of Pruning • Shrubs that bloom on the current year’s growth such as roses should be pruned in fall or early spring. • Shrubs such as hydrangea and spirea require annual pruning to thin out old dead wood • Some suckers or shoots from plant roots should be removed to keep plant from becoming too thick.
Types or Methods of Pruning • Thinning removes certain branches to open up the plant and keep the natural shape. • Heading back removes the end section of branches at the same height so that new shoots make the plant thicker.
Types of Methods of Pruning • Renewal pruning removes old branches that are large and unproductive by cutting them back to ground level. It is usually effective on flowering shrubs. • Root pruning is usually done one growing season prior to transplanting. The general rule is that one inch of stem diameter equals 10” of circle diameter for pruning roots around the plant.
Pruning Tool Tips • Keep all pruning tools sharp and clean • Keep handles and bolt nuts secure or tight • Use caution with cutting tools. “If they cut plants, they can cut you.”
Types of Pruning Tools • Pruning Saw • Has a blade with coarse teeth • Blade may or may not fold into the handle for safety and storage • It will cut live or dead limbs
Types of Pruning Tools • Pole pruner • Has a saw and pruning tool on a pole to remove branches that are up to 12 feet overhead • Power Pole Pruners have a power saw on the end of an extended handle
Types of Pruning Tools • Grass shears • Have two blades designed to cut grass around edges of walks or flower beds
Types of Pruning Tools • Lopping Shears • Have long handles • Will cut limbs from 1” to 1 ½” in diameter
Types of Pruning Tools • Hand shears or pruning shears • Have a single blade that cuts against another piece of metal or . . . • Two blades that work like scissors to cut limbs ½” in diameter
Types of Pruning Tools • Hedge Shears • Have longer blades that cut tender growth
Types of Pruning Tools • Chainsaw • Has a gasoline, battery, or electrical powered chain that cuts large limbs from 3” up to the blade length