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  1. PAF 4O

  2. Training Principles and Methods

  3. What Is Training? • Makes the body more efficient • Makes the body better able to perform certain tasks • Can make the human machine more effective • We can run faster, jump higher, and throw further

  4. Training Principles

  5. Training Principles • The F.I.T.T Principle • The Principle of Overload • The Principle of Progression • The Principle of Specificity (or S.A.I.D.) • The Principle of Individual Differences • The Principle of Reversibility • The Principle of Diminishing Returns

  6. F.I.T.T. Principle • The four building blocks of exercise prescription • F = Frequency • I = Intensity • T= Type • T= Time

  7. Frequency • the number of training sessions per week spent training • general guideline is 3-5 times/week • determination of frequency depends greatly on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations, and type of training

  8. Intensity • how hard the individual must work • taken as a percentage of the individual’s maximal aerobic and anaerobic power • general guideline is 50%-100% of the athlete’s maximal ability/effort • Intensity is also altered by changing the rest time

  9. Time • amount of time spent in a single training session • depends on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations, and type of training

  10. Type • Refers to the type of training method used • depends on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations, and sport or activity for which he or she is training

  11. Principle of Overload • For physiological change, the body must perform tasks that are more challenging than those to which it is accustomed • Over time the body will adapt, therefore in order to continue to grow, new demands must be incorporated • Overload can include all aspects of training, i.e., physiological, emotional, mental, and psychological

  12. Principle of Progression • In order to constantly improve, an athlete must progressively increase the overload over time • The athlete must be aware that loads and demands on the body must occur over time to increase performance and decrease injury

  13. Principle of Specificity or Specific Adaptation To Imposed Demand (S.A.I.D) • In order for specific outcomes to occur, training must be specific to those outcomes • Example: if you need to improve your vertical jump, your exercise prescription should include explosive power such as exercises that target the legs • Specific muscle adaptations will occur if training is specific • Training must reflect athlete’s “game situation needs”

  14. Principle of Individual Differences • Every athlete has a different physical and psychological makeup • Pre-training fitness levels • Requirements within their sport • Age and gender • Ability to recover from workouts • Ability to recover from injury • Body Type

  15. Principle of Reversibility • “Use it or lose it” • Muscles will start to lose training effects as soon as training stops • Atrophy will occur during sustained periods without training • Significant training benefits can be lost after 2 weeks of not training – i.e. Christmas Break • Reasons include: injury, lack of motivation, overtraining, and burnout

  16. Principle of Diminishing Returns • A person’s training gains will reflect that person’s prior level of training • Individuals who do not train or train very little will see significant gains • Highly trained individuals will see little gains as they experience performance plateaus • Changing training programs and philosophy are ways to help prevent performance plateaus

  17. Training Methods

  18. Types of Training Methods • Interval training • Fartlek training • Resistance training • Plyometric training • Continuous Intensity Training (C.I.T)

  19. Interval • Can benefit both anaerobic and aerobic systems • Alternating periods of intensity within a given workout • Great for lactic acid training threshold • Manipulates length of intense period, its intensity, length of rest, and number of repetitions

  20. Fartlek • Means “speed play” • Basically the same as interval, without rigid numerical control • Athletes change variables according to terrain or how they feel • Speed up or slow down when you want • Generally used for aerobic training

  21. Plyometrics • “Stretch-shortening exercises” • Examples include: bounding, hopping, jumping, box jumps, box drills • Used to develop speed and power • Caution: should not be used until athletes have a solid aerobic and anaerobic base. Children should also avoid intense plyometric routines.

  22. Resistance • Lifting weights is the most common form • Weight provides resistance to muscles • Best way to promote hypertrophy • Broken down into number of: sets, repetitions, rest, tempo (speed of repetition), loads, and volume

  23. Continuous Intensity Training • Form of Aerobic or Anaerobic Lactic Training • Completed for longer periods at the same intensity (aerobic) or simply without prescribed rest intervals (lactic) • For Example: • Run 5 km for time • As many rounds as possible in 20 minutes (AMRAP) of 5 pushups, 10 sit-ups, 15 body weight squats • Depending on intensity can be used as an active recovery workout day

  24. Other Important Training Factors • Stretching • Leads to muscles which are less prone to injury • 3 types: Ballistic, Static and PNF • Warm-up • Helps to gradually prepare body for training intensity • Prevents early onset of fatigue • Cooldown • Helps to gradually return from training intensity • Helps to remove lactic acid

  25. Other Important Training Factors • Rest and recovery • Needs to be incorporated into all training programs to allow for proper growth and healing • Does not necessarily mean doing nothing • Sleep • Helps to regenerate body systems • In children, promotes growth • Allows for more efficient functioning during waking hours


  27. The Role of Energy Systems The three energy systems available… 1) Anaerobic alactic 2) Anaerobic lactic 3) Aerobic • The ultimate goal of each energy system is to produce useable energy (ATP) that your muscles can use • Each system has certain limitations and strengths • Training can be incorporated to either enhance one or all energy systems, depending on the athlete’s needs

  28. Anaerobic Alactic Energy System • Trains strength or speed • High speed explosive movements, generally 85%-100% of maximal effort/ability lasting up to 10 seconds of continuous work (speed) • Able to handle up to 60 seconds of total work per set of repetitions (5-6) (strength) • Long rest periods between sets/intervals to allow for ATP regeneration • For interval / plyometric training which trains speed / power use the Work to Rest Ratio of 1:5-6 • For resistance training which trains strength rest for 3-4 minutes between sets • Need aerobic base in order to train properly

  29. Anaerobic Lactic Energy System • Trains muscular endurance and improves lactic acid threshold • High speed movements, generally 75%-85% of maximal effort/ability lasting 10 secs to 2 mins • For interval training use the Work to Rest ratio of 1 – 2 or 3, • max interval length 2 minutes, 1 min is recommended • max rest is 4 minutes between sets • total workout duration is 20 minutes • For CIT training create workouts that last between 10 – 20 minutes • Total work dependent on athletes fitness and Lactic Acid threshold • Need aerobic base in order to train properly

  30. Aerobic System • Trains cardiovascular system • Repetitive movements, generally 50%-75% of maximal effort/ability • For interval training use the Work to Rest Ratio of 1 – 0.5 or1 • max interval length 2 minute • max interval rest therefore is 2 minutes • total workout duration is 30 minutes • For CIT or Fartlek training workouts should last a minimum of 30 minutes • Total work dependent on athletes aerobic fitness

  31. Training Program Design

  32. Periodization Sport Based Design • Breakdown of year-long training • Three major seasons: off-season, pre-season, and in-season • Macrocycle – the year or years • Mesocycle – months or weeks • Microcycle – day(s) or week

  33. Concurrent • Training all energy systems at the same time • Different types of training simultaneously • Great for general fitness • Performed during the off-season for certain athletes • Ideal for keeping variety in one’s exercise program

  34. When creating a training program you must use the following workout design elements: • Variability • Avoid repetitive workouts to prevent adaptation • High Intensity • Create workouts that are challenging • Functional • Make sure your exercises can apply to real world situations