Chapter 15. Employee Safety and Health. Chapter 15 Outline. Why employee safety and health are important Occupational safety law OSHA standards and record keeping Inspections and citations Inspection priorities The inspection itself Penalties Inspection guidelines. Chapter 15 Outline.
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Chapter 15 Employee Safety and Health
Chapter 15 Outline • Why employee safety and health are important • Occupational safety law • OSHA standards and record keeping • Inspections and citations • Inspection priorities • The inspection itself • Penalties • Inspection guidelines
Chapter 15 Outline • Responsibilities and rights of employers and employees • Dealing with employee resistance • The changing nature of OSHA • Entrepreneur’s HR • Management commitment and safety • Strategic HR
Chapter 15 Outline • What causes accidents? • Unsafe conditions and other work-related factors • What causes unsafe acts? • Research insight
Chapter 15 Outline • How to prevent accidents • Reducing unsafe acts by emphasizing safety • Reducing unsafe acts through selection and placement • Reducing unsafe acts through training • HR.Net
Chapter 15 Outline • Reducing unsafe acts through motivation • Behavior-based safety • Conduct safety and health inspections • Safety beyond the plant gate • The new workplace • Controlling workers’ compensation costs • Before the accident • After the accident • Analyzing claims
Chapter 15 Outline • Employee health: problems and remedies • Alcoholism and substance abuse • Dealing with substance abuse • Workplace substance abuse and the law • Legal risks • Job stress and burnout • Reducing job stress • Burnout • Research insight
Chapter 15 Outline • Employee health: problems and remedies • Asbestos exposure at work • Computer-related health problems • AIDS and the workplace • Workplace smoking • What you can and cannot do • Smoking policies
Chapter 15 Outline • Employee health: problems and remedies • Violence at work • Heightened security measures • Improved employee screening • Workplace violence training • Enhanced attention to employee retention/dismissal • Dismissing violent employees • Dealing with angry employees • Legal constraints on reducing workplace violence • Summary
After Studying This Chapter You Should Be Able To: • Provide a safer environment for your employees • Minimize unsafe acts by employees • Explain the basic facts about OSHA • Explain the supervisor’s role in safety • Describe and illustrate techniques for reducing accidents • Explain how to deal with important occupational health problems
Strategic Overview • We explored union–management relations, and negotiating agreements • Employee safety is usually one of these • Provide you with information about employee safety and health problems at work • OSHA—the Occupational Safety and Health Act
Why Safety and Health Are Important • The numbers are staggering • Toll can be greater than the numbers suggest considering lives are at stake 860,000+ illnesses 13.2 million accidents 6000+ deaths $23000/accident $171 B
OSHA • The 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act • Assures safe and healthful work places • Created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) • Defines occupational illness
Occupational Illness • OSHA creates standards and procedures to prevent injury and illness Guardrails not less than 2” x 4” or the equivalent and not less than 36” or more than 42” high, with a midrail, when required, of a 1” x 4” lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. OSHA accident form
OSHA Inspections and Citations • Imminent danger • Catastrophes, fatalities, and accidents • Alleged violations • Periodic special-emphasis inspections • Random inspections and re-inspections • Citations issued when problems are found
Fall protection The Inspection Lockout/tagout Scaffolding • OSHA officer arrives • Explains purpose, scope and standards • Employee accompanies officer • Stop and question workers • Discuss apparent violations • May issue a citation and penalty Machine guarding Hazards communication
OSHA Penalties • Range from $5,000-$70,000 • Can be much higher • Ongoing daily penalties • Fine based on seriousness, size of company, and compliance history
Inspection Guidelines Initial contact - • Refer inspector to your OSHA coordinator • Check credentials • Ask for reason • You may ask if it’s from a current employee • Notify your counsel
Inspection Guidelines Opening conference - • Set focus and scope • Discuss protecting trade secret areas • Show you have safety programs in place
Inspection Guidelines Walk-around inspections - • Accompany inspector, take detailed notes • Takes photo or video if inspector does • Get duplicates of samples, copies of test results • Be helpful, don’t volunteer information • Immediately correct any violation identified
Responsibilities of Employers and Employees • Employers • Provide hazard-free workplace • Can seek consulting help and identification • Can’t punish employee • Employees • Comply with standards • Report problems to supervisors • Can demand safety
Dealing With Employee Resistance • Failure to wear hardhats or ear protectors typify problem • Employers limit liability by: • Get union OK to discharge • Use formal arbitration • Use positive reinforcement and training
The Changing Nature of OSHA • Moving toward cooperation • Greater use of technology • Web site shows OSHA track record for all
Entrepreneurs + HR • OSHA is not there just to issue citations • A resource to help business lower costs • Anderson Steel had help from OSHA • Result was much lower workers comp costs
Safety is NO accident • Management commitment is key to safety: • Institutionalize commitment • Analyze accidents, incidents • Set specific achievable safety goals OSHA cases 80% Profits $560,000
Strategic HR • Con Ed adopted safety 1st strategy • Health and environmental safety staff • Thousands of pages of new safety procedures • Monthly video of “close calls” • Safety “time-outs” • Put strategy into action = safety aware workers
What Causes Accidents • Chance occurrences • Unsafe conditions • Unsafe employee acts
Unsafe Conditions • Unsafe conditions include: • Improperly guarded equipment • Defective equipment • Hazardous procedures • Unsafe storage • Improper illumination • Improper ventilation
What Causes Unsafe Acts? • People cause accidents • Studies do not show “proneness” is the cause • Remedy may be to change work assignment
Research Insight • Accident causes tend to be multifaceted • Researchers asked college students how frequently they had mishaps at work as well as to describe themselves • What traits do you think caused some students to be more or less accident prone?
How to Prevent Accidents • Reduce unsafe conditions: • Design jobs to remove, reduce physical hazards • Use checklists • Computerized tools • Solutions may or may not be obvious Checklist How would you reduce slips and falls at a factory?
High enough Reduce Unsafe Acts By Emphasizing Safety • Supervisors should: • Praise employees • Listen • Be a good example • Visit plant areas regularly • Maintain open safety communications • Link bonuses to safety improvements
Reduce Unsafe Acts Through Selection and Placement • Screening • Isolate accident causing trait and test (ERI) • Interview: • What would you do if you saw an employee working in an unsafe way? • What would you do if your supervisor gave you a task but no training on how to do it? • Do you know of any reason why you would not be able to perform the various functions of this job?
Reduce Unsafe Acts Through Training • New employees must be trained with safety in mind • Use OSHA and training courses • Must follow-up training with periodic testing demonstrable skill • Multilingual testing may be needed Powerpoint presentation
Think Safety Motivation to Reduce Unsafe Acts • Workplace posters show a 20% reduction in accidents • Safety awards like plaques and bonus cash can’t hurt • Positive reinforcement is a plus when combined with training • Behavior based safety training
Conduct Safety and Health Inspections • Eliminate hazards • Inspect • Use checklists • Investigate • Notification system • Use employee committees
Reduce unsafe conditions Emphasize commitment at the top Emphasize safety Emphasize safety policy Reduce unsafe acts Use selection tests Provide training Use posters Use positive reinforcement Behavior-based safety programs Conduct inspections regularly Safety Summary
The New Workplace and Safety Beyond the Gate • Make employees the “champions of safety” • Make a “Safety first” culture permeate your company • Give lottery tickets to employees who have seat belts on as they go home
Controlling Workers Compensation Costs • Before the accident: • Take safety precautions • Strictly enforce • After the accident: • Quick medical attention • Have answers • Be proactive • Claims analyzing software
Employee Health: Alcohol and Substance Abuse • Percentage of workers with abuse problems has dropped – about 15% report use of illicit drugs last year • Cost can be high with $7000/year for each abuser How to spot a substance abuser
Dealing With Abusers • Some employers must be zero tolerance • Others have 3 strikes and you’re out • Some guidelines: • If an employee appears to be under the influence, ask how the employee feels • Make a written record and follow up • Use the company’s employee assistance program (EAP)
Workplace Substance Abuse and the Law • Publish a policy • Establish a drug-free awareness program • Employees must abide by the employer’s policy and report any criminal convictions
Legal Risks • Dealing with alcoholism and drugs entails legal risks • Prior to implementing a drug policy ask: • How will you inform workers? • What testing will be required? • What accommodations would you make for those who seek treatment?
Job Stress and Burnout • Substance abuse can result from job stress • Can you think of some factors that lead to job stress? • Personality affects reaction to stress • What are the consequences of stress?
Reducing Job Stress • Relationships • Biting • Your relationship with your boss • Realistic deadlines • Lead time • Detachment and relaxation
Reducing Job Stress • Take a walk • Reduce unnecessary noise • Reduce trivia in your job - delegate • Limit interruptions • Distasteful problems • Make a “worry list” – include solutions
Reducing Job Stress • Good supervisor skills are important: • Reduce personal conflicts • Open communication • Support employees’ efforts • Ensure job–person fit • More job control • Provide EAP’s, counseling
Burnout Definition • Burnout – the total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal
Burnout – Read the Signs • Inability to relax • Identification with your activities • Meaningless advancement goals • Workaholic