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Salads - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Salads. Salad Greens Identification. Lettuce – Leafy greens with crisp texture and subtle flavor. Butterhead (Boston & Bibb) Crisp Iceberg Leaf Lettuce (Red & Green) Romaine Baby Lettuce (Mesclun).

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salad greens identification
Salad Greens Identification
  • Lettuce – Leafy greens with crisp texture and subtle flavor.
    • Butterhead (Boston & Bibb)
    • Crisp Iceberg
    • Leaf Lettuce (Red & Green)
    • Romaine
    • Baby Lettuce (Mesclun)
Chicory – Create a contrast in salad textures and taste. Can be hearty and slightly bitter. They can be cooked, usually grilled or braised.
    • Belgian and Curly Endive
    • Radicchio
    • Escarole
salad composition
Salad Composition
  • Base – Usually greens that line the plate.
  • Body – Main ingredient, usually salad greens, fruit or cooked and blended ingredients such as chicken or potato salad.
  • Garnish – Added for color and interest. Should always complement the flavors and balance the body of the salad.
  • Dressing- Need to complement the flavors and textures of the salad.
salad preparation
Salad Preparation
  • Sanitation –
    • Proper hand washing.
    • Gloves should be used since product does not undergo further cooking.
  • Purchasing-
    • Greens must be fresh and blemish free.
    • Try to purchase on a daily basis.
    • Products should be free of yellowing or browning.
    • Heads should be heavy with little or no damage to the outer leaves.
Cutting vs. Tearing
    • Personal preference.
    • Hand tearing minimizes bruising but not always practical.
    • Acceptable to cut hardy greens with a knife.
Iceberg Lettuce Preparation.
    • Peel away undesirable outer leaves
    • Hold the head firmly with core facing downward.
    • Smack the head against the cutting board to loosen the core.
    • Remove the core and cut as desired.
Romaine Lettuce Preparation.
    • Peel away the undesirable leaves. Trim the damaged leaf ends with a knife.
    • Split the head lengthwise.
    • Make one or two cuts lengthwise leaving the root intact.
    • Cut Romaine to desired width.
washing greens
Washing Greens
  • All greens should be washed after cutting to remove dirt, insects and pesticide residues.
  • Fill sink with very cold water.
  • Place cut or torn greens in water.
  • Agitate greens to remove sediment.
  • Remove greens by hand or with strainer.
  • Shake greens in strainer or salad spinner to remove excess water.
salad dressings
Salad Dressings
  • “Sauce for the salad”
  • Vinaigrette – temporary emulsion of oil, vinegar & seasonings.
  • Standard Ratio: 3:1 oil to vinegar
    • ½ cup Red Wine Vinegar
    • 1 ½ cup Olive oil
    • Salt and Pepper to taste

MOP: Pour vinegar in small bowl. In a slow steady stream pour in oil while whipping with a wire wisk.

Permanent Emulsions – Oil and vinegar do not separate due to the addition of an emulsifier, usually egg yolk, mustard or cream.
    • Mayonnaise
  • A fermented milk product made from the curds produced when milk is coagulated.
  • There are more than 500 kinds of cheese.
  • Believed to have started in the Tigris-Euphrates valley (present-day Iraq) approximately 8,000 years ago.
  • Egyptian hieroglyphics depict workmen making cheese.
  • The Roman Legion facilitated the spread of art of cheesemaking throughout Europe and England.
  • During the Middle Ages the art of cheesemaking improved greatly in the monasteries and feudal estates of Europe.
  • Most cheese made from cow’s milk.
  • Other commonly used milks: goat and sheep.
  • Less commonly used milks: buffalo, camel, caribou, elk, horse, llama, reindeer, and yak. Used mainly by remote societies, not as alternative to cow’s milk.
composition of milk
Composition of Milk
  • ~88% water
  • Remainder: proteins, minerals, sugar (lactose), fat (whole milk = 4% fat), vitamins, and minerals.
  • Non-water components are collectively called “milk solids.”
  • Two major proteins in milk: caseins and albumins.
  • Caseins play major role in coagulating milk.
  • Manufacturing – The first 24 hours of cheesemaking, from pasteurization to final salting.
  • Ripening- The process of aging.
  • A heat treatment of milk to destroy pathogenic bacteria that cause human disease.
  • Does not sterilize the milk, many nonpathogenic bacteria and spores remain in the milk (causes milk to sour).

Acidification – lowering the pH of the milk, making it more acid. Process performed by lactic acid producing bacteria.

Coagulation- Curd formation. Most commonly done by the enzyme “chymosin”. Traditional source of chymosin was Rennet, produced by the lining of the 4th stomach of very young, milk-fed calves. 1990- development of genetically engineered chymosin


Cutting the Curd- Syneresis- Cutting the curd to release whey. Heating causes curd to contract and release more water. When the curd is sufficiently solid it is transferred to molds and the cheese is pressed into its final shape.


Salting and Shaping – Salt is added for flavor and inhibit bacterial growth. Mold is submerged in a brine bath for several days.


During the maturing, the cheeses are provided at regular intervals with a thin coat of plastic which protects the rind against the formation of mold. The rind of some types are rubbed with a bacteria during maturing.


Samples are taken at the conclusion of the production process when the cheese leaves the brine bath, and also during maturing. The cheese is tested for e.g. moisture, fat and salt content. At the same time random checks are made for pollutants, such as PCBs, aflatoxin and any remainders of herbicides.


The control stamp gives the fat content, cheese type and a number indicating batch and creamery. It also indicates the cheese complies with all statutory regulations

types of cheese
Types of Cheese

Soft: Brie, Camembert, Cottage Cheese, Cream Cheese, Feta, Mascarpone, Neufchatel, Ricotta

Semisoft: American, Asiago, Baby Swiss, Blue, Brick, Gorgonzola, Havarti, Limburger, Monterey Jack, Mozzarella, Muenster

Firm: Edam, Gouda, Provolone

Hard: Cheddar, Colby, Colby Jack, Gruyere, Parmesan, Romano, Swiss

Specialty Cheese: Pasteurized Process Cheese, Cold Pack