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The Archaic Period Cultures of Latin America Readings: M. Coe- Chapter 3 Sources: S.T. Evans, & more
Archaic Period 8,000BC- 2,000BC • Climate • Wetter and warmer, • Landscapes • Micro-environments • Archaic Transformations • N. Arid Zone-Tamaulipas • Basin of Mexico- Tehuacan Valley • Maya region- Chiapas, Guatemala & Belize
Seasonality & Scheduling • Dry Season Subsistence • “Micro-band” • Game & Agave plant • Domestication of squash • Rainy season Subsistence • Abundance of food and water • “Macro-band”
Early to Middle Archaic Period(8,000-5500BC) • Caves and Rock shelters • Gila Naquitz- Valley of Oaxaca (8,000-6,500BC) • Micro-band • Maguey use evidence • The Zoque • Film points • Tehuacan Valley • Slopes with caves • Springs (ref. to name) • Use for over 10,000 yrs. • Human sacrifice (cremation) • Reasons?
Origins of Mexican Cultivation Middle (5500-3500BC) to Late Archaic (3500-2000BC) • Mesoamerican crops • Maguey • The four sisters • Maize Domestication • 4,000BC origins • Highlands of Oaxaca and Balsas Drainage-West Oaxaca • Guila Naquitz Cave-(4250BC) • Other sites • Early uses