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The 3GPP2 Architecture. Sridhar Machiraju CS294-3, Spring 2002, University of California at Berkeley. Contents. Introduction The 3GPP2 Architecture Mobility Management in 3GPP2 Functional comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2. Architectural comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2 The MWIF Architecture.

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The 3GPP2 Architecture


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the 3gpp2 architecture

The 3GPP2 Architecture

Sridhar Machiraju

CS294-3, Spring 2002,

University of California at Berkeley

contents
Contents
  • Introduction
  • The 3GPP2 Architecture
  • Mobility Management in 3GPP2
  • Functional comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2.
  • Architectural comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2
  • The MWIF Architecture.
introduction
Introduction

We saw that the 3GPP architecture evolved from the already-existing GPRS network. It can be viewed as IP-based multimedia enhancements to 2G networks.

However, 3GPP2 has created a new architecture (there was no existing packet packet data service) for the 2G and 3G CDMA air interfaces.

contents4
Contents
  • Introduction
  • The 3GPP2 Architecture
  • Mobility Management in 3GPP2
  • Functional comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2.
  • Architectural comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2
  • The MWIF Architecture.
basic design philosophy of 3gpp2
Basic Design Philosophy of 3GPP2
  • Leverage existing globally-accepted IETF protocols whenever possible e.g., mobile IP (for mobility), IPSec (for e2e security), AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting for network access).
  • Some advantages are –
    • Interoperability/roaming with existing IP networks.
    • Easy deployment of new services.
    • Well understood standards.
a simpler version
A Simpler Version!

Control of Services

IP

SCP

SN

PSTN

Base Station

Internet

BTS

BSC

MSC

PDN

Traditional “Switching Point”

SMS

HLR

VLR

Packet data functions

OTAF

PDSN

AAA

slide8

Much More Simpler!

  • BTS – Base Transceiver Station
  • BSC – Base Station Controller
  • MSC – Mobile Switching Center
  • PDSN - Packet Data Serving Node
  • HA – Home Agent
  • IWF – Inter-Working Function
contents9
Contents
  • Introduction
  • The 3GPP2 Architecture
  • Mobility Management in 3GPP2
  • Functional comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2.
  • Architectural comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2
  • The MWIF Architecture.
a mobility perspective
A Mobility Perspective
  • Note that, for simple IP, the HA is not used.
  • AAA is used for data service authentication.
  • The PPP tunnel from the MS terminates at the PSDN which acts as the Foreign Agent (FA).
  • The PSDN is the first hop IP router and performs Diffserv shaping, ingress filtering, handoff between PCFs.
  • The PDSN is also responsible for forwarding accounting information to the appropriate AAA entity.
  • The PCF maintains a layer 2 connection with the PSDN for sending/receiving packets for MSs under its control.
contents12
Contents
  • Introduction
  • The 3GPP2 Architecture
  • Mobility Management in 3GPP2
  • Functional comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2.
  • Architectural comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2
  • The MWIF Architecture.
security and mobility management
3GPP uses GGSN, SGSN nodes.

3GPP does not allow heterogeneous access.

The HLR is likely to be used by the SGSN for authenticating data users. Thus, access and data network authentication are integrated.

3GPP2 uses mobile IP and PSDN as FA/HA .

It allows heterogeneous access.

The PDSN uses an AAA infrastructure to authenticate data users. Access and data network authentication are separate.

Security and Mobility Management
services etc
The 3GPP model has a SIP-like functionality in the 3 types of Call State Control Functions (CSCF).

Location service in the 3GPP model is tied closely to the access.

GTP is used to provide link-layer mobility.

Though the specification is yet to be published, 3GPP2 has decided to use SIP.

In the 3GPP2 model, location service is more of a database i.e., access-independent.

Link layer mobility in the 3GPP2 world is viewed as a direct extension of mobile IP.

Services etc.
note that
Note that,
  • Due to the lack of standards for SIP with all potential applications like VoIP, there is a danger of 3GPP and 3GPP2 coming up with incompatible extensions to SIP which would have to be harmonized sometime later.
  • The 3GPP2 specification is not as complete as the 3GPP specification.
  • In the 3GPP specification, there is an option to place a mobile IP-based Foreign Agent in the GGSN. Still, this would introduce a lot of tunneling overhead in the GGSN-SGSN path (Mobile IP over GTP over IP).
contents16
Contents
  • Introduction
  • The 3GPP2 Architecture
  • Mobility Management in 3GPP2
  • Functional comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2.
  • Architectural comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2
  • The MWIF Architecture.
3gpp all ip network architecture model

Multimedia

IP Networks

Multimedia

IP Networks

3G-SGSN

3G-GGSN

UTRAN

BSS/

GERAN

MSC Server

G-MSC Server

3G-HLR

BGCF

MGCF

CSCF

3G-HLR

3G-HLR

CSCF

Emergency

Services

Network

3GPP All-IP Network Architecture Model

Applications &

Services

IP Multimedia Subsystem

SCP

Legacy mobile

signalling

Network

T-SGW

PSTN/

Legacy/External

MRF

MGW

UMS

R-SGW

HSS

CS Domain

Application

Service

PS Domain

GMLC

Control

Transport

RAN

MT

TE

Signaling only

User Data and Signaling

3gpp nam discussion
3GPP NAM - Discussion
  • 3GPP is divided into 4 planes – IP Multimedia, Packet-Switched, Data-Switched and Radio Access.
  • At each plane, there exist data and control functions.
  • The picture is very disorganized especially from traditional networking perspective.
    • Legacy transport gateways are on the same plane as applications.
    • HLR and Unified Messaging Service are in limbo.
    • As mentioned earlier, the location service is access dependent because of its presence in the lowest layer.
    • The CSCF has all the functionality; there is not much modularity.
  • Transport and Control reside in the same functional node often.
  • Applications have to talk to either of CSCF, HSS, SGSN.
  • QoS is implemented in CSCF and GGSN.
3gpp2 all ip network architecture model

IP

Network

PSTN

MAP

41 & GSM

3GPP2 All-IP Network Architecture Model

Application

Service Application

Databases

EIR

DSI

Sub

Poli

Service

Roaming Signaling Gateway

Subscription QoS Manager

Network Capability Gateway

Control

Trunk Signaling Gateway

Position Server

AAA

Session Control Manager

Transport

Media Gateway Control

Core QoS Manager

Position Determining Entity

Media Resource Function

Access

Gateway

FA/

Attendant

Media Gateway

Access Net.

Signaling-Control

BSC

+ PCF

BTS

Bearer

MM

Mobile IP Home Agent

Radio

Border Router

Other

Access Networks

MS

Legacy MS Domain Support

3gpp2 nam discussion
3GPP2 NAM - Discussion
  • 3GPP2 fits into the Transport, Control, Service, Application Plane model much better.
  • The PSDN will have only the HA/FA functionality unlike the GSN nodes.
  • Applications talk to only the NCG.
  • The modularity of this model over the 3GPP model is seen in the case of the QoS manager.
  • The HLR, ESI, location information etc are captured as services available by querying databases.
contents21
Contents
  • Introduction
  • The 3GPP2 Architecture
  • Mobility Management in 3GPP2
  • Functional comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2.
  • Architectural comparison of 3GPP and 3GPP2
  • The MWIF Architecture.
the mobile wireless internet forum mwif
The Mobile Wireless Internet Forum (MWIF)
  • MWIF is a non-profit association of wireless companies whose objective is to define a single mobile wireless and Internet architecture independent of the access technology.
  • They have a network reference model to achieve this. Backwards compatibility is still a problem.
  • Notice the service discovery server in the MWIF architecture.
  • The CSCF functionality is in the CSM and Session Proxy.
mwif all ip network architecture model

Enterprise

MAP

41 & GSM

PSTN

Intranet

INTERNET

MWIF All-IP Network Architecture Model

Directory Services

Application Functional Entities

Resource Directory

Policy Repository

Profile Server

Core Network Application(s)

3rd Party Application(s)

Location Server

Global Name Server

Application

Geographic Location Manager

Service Discovery Server

AAA Functional Entities

Service

Authentication

Server

Authorization

Server

Accounting

Server

Control

Communications Session Manager (CSM)

Home Mobility Manager

Multimedia Resource Controller

Resource Manager

Transport

Session Proxy

Session Anchor

Home IP Address Manager

Multimedia Resource Function

Media Gateway Controller

Access Gateway

Mobile Attendant

Bearer

Transport Gateway Functional Entities

Access Transport Gateway

i

l

Signaling-Control

Signaling Gateway

IP Gateway

Media Gateway

IP Address Manager

Access Network

Terminal

UIM

summary
Summary
  • Though the 3GPP and 3GPP2 NAM differ, active harmonization initiatives such as MWIF are cause for optimism.
  • Remember that harmonization on the access is also being tried for (or else dual mode devices would be necessary).
  • SIP seems to be the choice for session initiation over H.323 and other protocols.
  • There are strong reasons for using IPv6 in 3G networks. But, all commercial 3G networks till date use IPv4 (since it is easier to deploy).