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Satellite Microwave Radiometry: Current and Future Products. Rogre De Roo and Tony England Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences. Outline. Principles of Microwave Radiometry Observables History of spaceborne missions Future missions and opportunities.

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satellite microwave radiometry current and future products
Satellite Microwave Radiometry:Current and Future Products

Rogre De Roo and Tony England

Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences

outline
Outline
  • Principles of Microwave Radiometry
  • Observables
  • History of spaceborne missions
  • Future missions and opportunities
what s so great about microwave remote sensing
What’s so great about Microwave Remote Sensing?

Tx

Rx

Rx

  • Long wavelengths (3mm to 30cm) don’t scatter off of objects the size of
  • cloud droplets -- microwaves see through clouds
  • 2. Source of power is independent of the sun -- microwaves see at night and day

Radar

Radiometry

  • Very high spatial resolution
  • Power hungry: expensive
  • Sensitive to geometry of water
  • Poor spatial resolution
  • Low power requirements
  • Insensitive to geometry of water
microwave radiometry planck radiation
Microwave Radiometry & Planck Radiation

8000K

white hot

the Sun

3000K

red hot

300K

room temp

30K

3K

outer space

1 GHz

0.3 m

1 THz

0.3 mm

1 PHz

0.3 um

frequency

wavelength

microwave characteristics of the atmosphere
Microwave Characteristics of the Atmosphere

from LeVine, Wilheit,

Murphy and Swift, 1989

microwave brightness and moisture
Microwave Brightness and Moisture

Space 2.7K

Space 2.7K

Sensor

Sensor

Dry Soil

~300K

Wet Soil

~300K

  • Water molecules have large electric dipole, unlike rest of nature
  • An interface w/ high contrast of index of refraction leads to reflection
  • Dry soils appear warm, while wet soils appear cold, at the same temp.

Liquid water molecules will orient itself with passing electromagnetic waves,slowing the wave down

The molecule can keep up with the wave until ~9 GHz

(index of refraction: n = 9 at 1 GHz, but n = 2 at 100 GHz)

H

- O +

H

strategy for estimating stored water
Strategy for Estimating Stored Water

Atmospheric Model

Satellite L-band Radiometer

Tb(observed)

Weather & downwelling radiance

SVAT Model

Assimilate Tb(observed) - Tb(model)

Temperature & Moisture Profiles

Tb (model)

Radiobrightness Model

Microwave Geophysics Group calibrating models in AK, 1995

products by frequency
Products by frequency

Also:

-Sea surface

salinity at 1.4GHz

-Vegetation moisture

content at 1.4 and

6 GHz

-Vegetation temperature

at 18 – 90 GHz

from LeVine, Wilheit,

Murphy and Swift, 1989

future systems and opportunities 1 4ghz 21cm
Future Systems and Opportunities: 1.4GHz (21cm)
  • SMOS (by ESA) in 2007: a very ambitious electronically steered array to collect soil moisture at 50 km and sea surface salinity at 300 km
  • Aquarius (by NASA) in 2010: relatively traditional design optimized for sea surface salinity observations.
  • HYDROS (by NASA) in 2012: relatively traditional design optimized for soil moisture measurements.
  • Soil moisture measurements have obvious hydrological value to GLACEO
  • Sea surface salinity…
sea surface salinity
Sea Surface Salinity ???
  • Great Lakes are a natural calibration target for a SSS mission:
    • Body of water with known salinity (none!)
    • Large extent for low spatial resolution observations
    • Conveniently located close to many scientists
  • However, spatial resolution for SSS is so poor, even Lake Superior may not be big enough.
  • Accurate meteorological and ecological data on the lakes and nearby lands will add utility to use of the lakes as calibration / validation target.