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Goiter

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  1. Goiter

  2. Thyroid Gland

  3. Thyroid Hormones: Functions • PERMISSIVE ACTIONS • Growth and development • Reproduction • DIRECT EFFECTS • Metabolic/thermogenic

  4. What makes thyroid hormones different from every other class of hormones? IODINE

  5. Thyroid Gland

  6. Thyroid Gland

  7. OH OH CH2 CH2 thyroglobulin OH OH I I I I O O I I I CH2 CH2 Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones • Alter tyrosine residues to create thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine • 3 main steps: • Synthesize thyrogobulin

  8. OH OH CH2 CH2 thyroglobulin OH OH I I I I O O I I I CH2 CH2

  9. OH OH CH2 CH2 OH OH I I I I enzymes O O I I I I CH2 CH2 Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones • 3 main steps: • Synthesize thyrogobulin • Alter tyrosine residues to create thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine • Use enzymes to cleave T3+4 from thyroglobulin thyroglobulin

  10. 1. Synthesis of thyrogolulin 2. Alteration of tyrosine 3. Enzymatic breakdown of thyroglobulin Follicular Cells colloid • What does TSH do? • Stimulates I- uptake • Stimulates thyroglobulin synthesis • Stimulates re-uptake of thyroglobulin into the cell • Stimulates breakdown of thyroglobulin • Follicle cell enlargement and cell division

  11. There is 50X more T4 than T3 in the blood • More T4 is produced in the thyroid gland • Binding globulin: • T4 has a much higher affinity for Thyroid-binding-globulin than T3 • So a higher proportion of T4 will be bound, less will be free • More of T3 will be free to enter cells • In fact, it is thought that T3 is the ‘active’ form of thyroid hormone • Thyroid hormone receptors in cells have higher affinity for T3 • Most cells contain an enzyme to remove one of the iodines off of T4 • The liver converts T4 to T3

  12. Thyroid Hormone Receptors • Can be nuclear: • Regulate gene transcription • Can be in the mitochondria: • Can regulate gene transcription of mitochondrial DNA • Effects on Metabolism • Thyroid hormones increase ATP production in the mitochondria • Increases oxygen consumption, and therefore basal metabolic rate • Effects on Thermoregulation: • Decreases the efficiency of ATP production • Less ATP produced, more heat let off • Increases Na+ transport pumps in cells (pumps produce heat)

  13. Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Hormones

  14. Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Hormones

  15. Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Hormones

  16. Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Hormones ?

  17. Clinical Aspects of Thyroid Hormones