Literacy Session 3 Making text accessible
Activity Match the text to the reading age
History Godric is an English thegn (a lord). He is the sheriff in Berkshire where he holds good land given to him by Harold. As sheriff he is the King's representative in the country, raising money for him and getting richer himself. If Harold loses, Godric knows the Normans will take his land, so he must fight to defend it. He does not want to end up a poor labourer working for a Norman lord. If Harold wins, Godric can expect some extra rewards. Readability Test ResultsIt should be easily understood by 11 to 12 year olds. What does this mean? Science You are going to watch two demonstrations. The first shows how methane can be used to turn a turbine. The second shows how a spinning turbine can make electricity. You are going to think about how these things are done in a power station. Readability Test Results It should be easily understood by 10 to 11 year olds. Zpd reading ranges – 3.7 – 7.0 = National Curriculum level = 4b – 4a 10.6 + Functional Readers Zpd reading ranges – 3.1 – 5.7 = National Curriculum level = 3a – 4b • 9.06- 10.6 Slightly below average moving towards functionality
Zpd reading ranges – 2.6 – 4.6 = National Curriculum level = 2a– 3a/4c Science You are going to watch two demonstrations. The first shows how methane can be used to turn a turbine. The second shows how a spinning turbine can make electricity. You are going to think about how these things are done in a power station. Readability Test Results It should be easily understood by 10 to 11 year olds. 8.00- 9.06 ‘Slightly below average’ ‘breakthrough stage’ • ’ 6.11 and below ‘Building blocks stage’’ ‘No functionality in reading Zpd reading ranges – 1.6 – 3.3 = National Curriculum level = 2b – 2a/3c 7.00 - 8.00 ‘Well below average’ ‘Limited functionality’ Maths The number line above may help you solve the first ten questions of this section. Round the following numbers to the nearest ten. Readability Test Results It should be easily understood by 10 to 11 year olds. Zpd reading ranges – 0.5 – 2.7 = National Curriculum level = 1c – 2a/3c
What can we do? Always check the content and the amount you are asking 2a and 2b students to read and write. Is it distracting from learning and engagement in your subject Don’t shy away from reading and writing, instead build in routines. Coach students in line tracking and numbering paragraphs. Ask students to flag up tricky words. Encourage reading aloud by promoting peer support and modelling support yourself. Develop ways to break down words, when a word is too difficult. Whenever students read or write offer lots of specific PRAISE
Checking the Reading Age www.read-able.com Word using review tools – spelling & grammar
Whole School Literacy Reading: Strategies for the classroom
A Whole School Approach to Reading Our students... some data: Independence means giving students strategies to access more challenging texts and questions How do you differentiate to ensure all can access materials/ questions? Ofsted 2012: Inspectors will evaluate ‘ how well teaching enables pupils to develop skills in reading, writing, communication and mathematics.’
Active readers Passive readers have everything laid out for them. They don't need to think or work anything out — it's all done for them. They merely read and observe.. Active readers engage with the text. They become intrigued by it, and work to discover its secrets.
Reading Strategies All 3 Strategies referenced on new school lesson observation proforma Teaching strategies for less able Reading Strategy Snake Good Readers... S SSSS Skim Scan Select Synthesise Summarise
Strategies for less able readers Cloze: 1 word in every 9 Skimming and scanning strategies Key questions Reading aloud Highlighters, key words Word searches Anagrams • All pupils with reading and writing difficulties can read and write (although often at a basic level) but are used to failing, so therefore we need to build both their ability and confidence within these areas. • These pupils will often ‘fly’ when working in a one to one situation. • These pupils greatly benefit from repetitive structures that allow them to achieve success and again build their confidence and boost their esteem. • In order to learn the skills that they have missed out on over the years, these pupils will need a lot of repetition built into their learning in order to put in place and consolidate reading and writing skills, essential for success in every subject.
Good readers… • Use a reading voice • Make predictions • Ask questions • Summarise • Visualise • Select favourite lines
Use a reading voice Model reading aloud Allow students to read in pairs • Predictions • What do you think will happen next? • Look at the title and the front cover, what clues do you get about what will happen in the book? • What would happen if… • Summarise • Can you explain what happens in the story in exactly 50 words? • Write a title for the chapter you have just read. • Tell your partner about what you have read today. Visualise Draw a picture of what you read today. • Ask questions • Write a question you would like to ask the author. • Write 3 questions for a character in the book? • What questions do you want to ask after reading the last chapter? Select favourite line My favourite line is…because it makes me think/feel…
Managing Reading • Consider a L/O • Use paired/ group reading • Model reading aloud: reader’s voice • Model good reader activities • Give pupils sentence starters • Listen to and expect students to read aloud
25 November 2011 BBC WORLD NEWS Australia plans huge marine reserve in Coral Sea The Coral Sea is home to diverse wildlife, including sharks and tuna . The Australian government says it plans to establish the world's largest marine reserve in the Coral Sea. Environment Minister Tony Burke said the protected zone would cover an area more than one-and-a-half times the size of France. New fishing limits would be imposed and and exploration for oil and gas banned. The proposal is subject to a 90-day consultation, but Mr Burke said the Coral Sea's biodiversity was at the heart of the plan. "There is no other part of Australia's territory where so much comes together - pristine oceans, magnificent coral, a military history which has helped define us and now a clear proposal for permanent protection," he said. The sea - off the Queensland coast in north-east Australia - is home to sharks and tuna, isolated tropical reefs and deep sea canyons. It is also the resting place of three US navy ships sunk in the Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942. 'World leader' Under the plans, fishing - commercial and recreational - would be allowed in some areas of the reserve, which at its closest point would start 60km (37 miles) from the coast and it extends out to 1,100km. President of the Queensland Seafood Industry Association Geoff Tilton said a larger area was needed for commercial fishing. But Professor Terry Hughes, director of coral reef studies at James Cook University, called the proposal a "welcome step" that "cements Australia's reputation as a world leader in marine resource management". "The proposed Coral Sea no-take area is hundreds of kilometres offshore, and will have no impact on recreational fishing. There is very, very little commercial fishing currently operating legally in the Coral Sea today," he said. Activists called the plan a good start but said key reefs and spawning grounds lay outside the fully protected area. Currently the world's largest marine reserve is a 545,000-sq-km area (210,425 sq miles) established by the UK around the Chagos Islands in the Indian Ocean. The Coral Sea reserve, if approved, would be approximately 989,842 sq km.
Key Questions • What is the Australian Government proposing? • Why are they proposing this? • Which groups of people have views on these? • What are the different views/ arguments regarding the proposal?
Strategies to make it easier… Let students collaborate prior to working alone: • Enquiry Train • Expert groups • Jigsawing • Collective memory/ Big Picture
Learning, problem solving and positive thinking:Plan Your Investigation S S S S S Skim Now you are going to use the Reading Strategy Snake to become experts on one area of positive thinking. Your teacher will model using the snake with the following extract: Scan Select Summarise Synthesise Good problem solving skills are fundamentally important if you're going to be successful in your career. But problems are something that we don't particularly like. They're time-consuming. They muscle their way into already packed schedules. They force us to think about an uncertain future. And they never seem to go away! That's why, when faced with problems, most of us try to eliminate them as quickly as possible. But have you ever chosen the easiest or most obvious solution – and then realized that you have entirely missed a much better solution? Or have you found yourself fixing just the symptoms of a problem, only for the situation to get much worse? To be an effective problem-solver, you need to be systematic and logical in your approach. By improving this, you'll make better overall decisions. And as you increase your confidence with solving problems, you'll be less likely to rush to the first solution – which may not necessarily be the best one.
The Reading Strategy Snake • Look at how we can use it... S S S S S Skim • Now you try: in expert groups use the reading strategy snake to analyse your text, identifying: key points, evidence and viewpoints. • Now create a bank of key questions or notes for others to use to help them read your text. Scan Select Summarise Synthesise
The Enquiry Train • Using the questions or notes provided you will now gather information from each source around the room. • Complete enquiry notes as you go. • Wait for music to tell you when you can move to the next station.
Get the job done: Create Top Tips! • Now your research is complete: create a series of Top Tips to help you and others cope with challenges you may face in the next few weeks. • Create a timeline with personal goals linked to using these strategies. Persistence ‘if at first you don’t succeed, try, try again.’ Willpower ‘No pain, no gain’
Where can I apply this? • Deconstructing questions in all of our subjects • Researching sources in Geography, History, Re, Arts, Science. • Analysing texts in ICT, English, Arts, Humanities, Science The list goes on…
A Consistent Approach to Teaching Reading Teaching strategies for less able Reading Strategy Snake Good Readers... All teachers use reading age data to differentiate S SSSS Progress ladders ultimately used across the school to support student progress and structure reading at the top end All 3 strategies referenced in whole school lesson observation proforma Skim Literacy Mats used to remind us of strategies and expectations All classrooms display and use Reading Strategy Snake & Good Reader posters Scan Select Synthesise Summarise