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Linguistics. Deictics/Pronouns/Japanese Spring 2010. There’s me & there’s you. …& then there are you. How do we talk about you? Which one of you do we mean? Can we be nice to you? Does it matter who you are? How is ‘you’ realized?. Here you are – English 2 nd person. Steve

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Spring 2010

there s me there s you
There’s me & there’s you

…& then there are you.

  • How do we talk about you?
  • Which one of you do we mean?
  • Can we be nice to you?
  • Does it matter who you are?
  • How is ‘you’ realized?
here you are english 2 nd person
Here you are – English 2nd person



Informal you

Formal you


Informal you

Formal you

here you are again
Here you are again

Steve All y’all


Informal you _____

Formal you _____


Informal you _____

Formal you _____

you in the north way
You – in the North Way



Informal du du

Formal De De


Informal de dere

Formal De De

you iberian style
You – Iberian Style

SpanishAm Span


Informal tu tu/vos/usted

Formal usted usted


Informal vosotros/as ustedes


Formal ustedes ustedes

arabic no t v distinction
Arabic (No T-V distinction)



Male أنتحضرتك

Female أنت حضرتك

inta/inti hadret-ak/-ik


Male أنتم حضرتك

Female أنتن حضرتك

antum/ hadretkum


‘antumaa’ = dual m/f


1st person 2nd p 3rd p

Sg. Watashi Anata Kare/


Pl. W-tachi A-tachi K-tachi

  • Thus, J is very easy & reasonable…
japanese 1 st p sg morphs
Japanese – 1st p sg: morphs
  • ‘watashi’ 私 – わたし
    • Reduced from ‘watakushi’ 私 - わたくし
  • Often ‘reduced’ to:
    • ‘wadasu’ わだす (東北訛り - men)
    • ‘washi’ わし old men
    • ‘wai,wate,ate’ わい、わて、あて men
    • ‘wa’ わ (青森:m/f; 愛媛: 年配の男性/二人称)
    • ‘wan, wa-’ ワン、ワー (沖縄方言 -men)
    • ‘atashi’ あたし young women
    • ‘atai’ あたい women very informal
germanic morphs
Germanic ‘morphs’
  • English I
  • Deutsch Ich
  • Dutch Ik
  • Dansk Jeg
  • Svensk Jag
  • Norsk Jeg/Eg
  • Icelandic Ég
  • Old English Ic
english reduced
English ‘reduced’
  • Think of variations in the pronunciation of I.
meanwhile in japan more of i
Meanwhile, in Japan: more of I
  • 我 われ ‘ware’ very formal
    • Duplicated  plural (casual)
  • 我が わが ‘waga’ very formal

Means "my" or "our". Used in speeches and formalities; 我が社 wagasha (our company) or 我が国 wagakuni (our country).

meanwhile i part ii
Meanwhile: I…part II
  • ‘ore’ 俺 (おれ) casual; male
    • Prev. m/f & 上下; now male & =/下
  • ‘oira’ 俺ら (おいら) (北) male
  • ‘oi/oidon’ おい/おいどん (南九州) m
  • ‘ura’ うら (東海東山)m/f
  • ‘orecchi’ おれっち (pl sg)
  • ‘oryaa/oraa’ おりゃあ / おらぁ
  • …’-aa’
  • ‘oryaa, oraa, bokaa, watashya, atashya, washyaa,’
  • おりゃあ、おらぁ, ぼかぁ、わたしゃ、あたしゃ、わしゃあ
  • Chibi-mariko-chan (ちびまる子ちゃん)– apopular cartoon character’s speech
  • By extending the ‘aa’ or ‘ya’ sound, your 1st person sg mimics Chibimariko
deictic flexibility
Deictic Flexibility & ミ
  • 1st person often used as 2ndWhat are we ‘pointing’ to? Cf. “I’ll come over”
  • ミー‘me,’ pronounced in a Japanese manner is not used in daily life but in fiction it might be used by a character with an international outlook. 最近では未成年の女子などが使用している。
  • In the early ‘80s, a pro wrestler took on two stage personalities; in one he used ‘ore’ and in the other ‘me’ as his 1st person singular. (no word on the plural) 1980年代初頭に連載された梶原一騎「プロレススーパースター列伝」では、ブッチャーの一人称を、主人公となるブッチャー篇では「俺」、陽気な脇役であるタイガーマスク篇では「ミー」と使い分けている。
more of me
More of me
  • ‘uchi’ 家 informal - young girls
  • ‘boku’ 僕 informal - m (rarely f)
  • ‘jibun’* 自分 athletics/2nd p.
  • ‘your name+diminutive’ - w/ children
  • ‘shoushoku’ 小職 - in business
  • ‘sensei’ 先生 - w/ teacher/doctor
  • ‘hongan’ 本官/- in court
  • ‘kochira’ こちら– in business dealings
sg pl choices
SgPl: choices
  • - 達 ‘-tachi’ informal. m/f
    • examples:

私達 ‘watashi-tachi’/ ‘watakushi-tachi’/


僕達 ‘boku-tachi’

俺達 ‘ore-tachi’

Also can be attached to names to indicate that person and the group (s)he is with (Ryuichi-tachi = Ryuichi and friends).

pronoun plural
Pronoun + plural
  • 共 ‘–domo’ humble –m/f
  • 私 共 ‘watashi-domo’ ‘watakushi-domo’


  • 僕 共 *‘boku-domo’
  • 俺 共 *’ore-domo’
pronoun plural1
Pronoun + plural
  • 等 ‘–ra’ informal
    • Used with informal pronouns; often used with hostile language
  • 私 等 ‘watashi-ra’ *‘watakushi-ra’

‘atashi-ra’(?) ‘washi-ra’

  • 僕 等 ‘boku-ra’
  • 俺 等 ‘ore-ra’