The thirty years war
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The Thirty Years’ War. Christine Power AP Euro. Setting the stage…. The Holy Roman Empire The quality of emperors varied. Some were strong and dynamic, others weak and ineffective The nobles grew powerful under the reign of the weak ruler Rudolf II (r. 1576-1612). Peace of Augsburg.

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The thirty years war

The Thirty Years’ War

Christine Power

AP Euro

Setting the stage
Setting the stage…

  • The Holy Roman Empire

    • The quality of emperors varied. Some were strong and dynamic, others weak and ineffective

    • The nobles grew powerful under the reign of the weak ruler Rudolf II (r. 1576-1612).

Peace of augsburg
Peace of Augsburg

  • Designed to solve religious tensions set off by Lutheranism…it was a temporary peace at best-- it was outdated!

    • Did not recognize Calvinism!

  • It also promoted a culture of fragmentation

    • Own tolls, tariffs, coins

    • Own rules, travel restrictions


  • Instead of getting easier, the period between 1517 and 1555 was marked with people choosing between THREE religions:

    • Roman Catholicism (more appealing now because of the Council of Trent)

    • Lutheranism (a home grown form of Protestantism

    • Calvinism (considered to be RADICAL)

Divided we fall
Divided we fall…

  • Rulers became worried because they could not control people

  • H.R.E. was weakened- religion came first, state came second

    • Calvinists walked out of the Reichstag because of religious differences– and preventing a tax from passing to raise an army to defend itself against the Turks

    • Formation of the Evangelical Union and the Catholic League

The spark 1618
The spark- 1618

  • Ferdinand, a Catholic, comes to the throne in Bohemia

  • The Protestants of Bohemia felt threatened

  • “Defenestration of Prague”- Ferdinand’s agents were thrown out the window of a Bohemian Protestant noble’s window

Part i bohemian period
Part I- Bohemian Period

  • Ferdinand elected Emperor of the H.R.E…Bohemia Rebels

  • They elect a Calvinist Frederick V as their lord.

    • Spain (Cath), Bavaria(Cath), Saxony (Luth) helps Ferdinand

Battles and results

Battle of White Mountain (1620)- Ferdinand is victorious

Bohemia becomes Catholic

Bavaria gains land

Battles and Results

Part ii danish period
Part II- Danish Period

  • Christian IV of Denmark (Luth) wants to gain territory. Abutting territory on North Sea is weak and commercially valuable.

    • English (Angl), French (Cath) Dutch (Cal) supported Denmark

    • Bavaria defeats invading Danes and they grow stronger

Part ii danish period cont
Part II- Danish Period Cont.

  • Emperor Ferdinand seeks out another ally to help-- a Lutheran

    • Mercenary Albrecht of Wallenstin Successfully attacks Denmark (1628) and takes it over… for himself

    • Ferdinand issues the EDICT OF RESTITUTION (1629).

      • Calvinism still illegal

      • Return of Catholic Church lands by Lutherans

Part iii swedish period
Part III- Swedish Period

  • Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (Luth), supported by:

    • France (Cath)

    • Dutch (Luth)

    • Brandenburg (Luth)

    • Saxony (Luth)

  • Invades at Breitenfeld (1630). Sweden Wins against Ferdinand and Wallenstein. Start of modern military tactics.

Part iii swedish period cont
Part III- Swedish Period Cont.

  • Battle of Lutzen (1632)

    • Gustavus Adolphus dies

    • Battle is a costly tie

  • Ferdinand arranges to have Wallenstein assassinated (1634)

Part iii swedish period cont1
Part III- Swedish Period Cont.

  • PEACE OF PRAGUE (1635).

    • Protestant states of the H.R.E. agree to a cease fire with Ferdinand

    • Sweden refuses to join peace movement

      • France and the Netherlands support Sweden

Part iv swedish french period
Part IV- Swedish-French Period

  • France (Cath) joins the war allied with Sweden (Luth) and Spain (Cath)

    • Most death and destruction

      • 1/3 of population dies… largest loss of life in Europe since the Black Plague and largest until World War II.

The treaty of westphalia 1648
The Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

  • Ended hostilities within H.R.E.

  • Rescinded Edict of Restitution

  • Reasserted the Peace of Augsburg

  • Calvinist gain rights to practice religion

  • Holland is officially independent from Hapsburgs

  • Bavaria gained political power in HRE

Treaty of westphalia cont
Treaty of Westphalia cont.

  • France gains territory

  • Brandenburg-Prussia becomes a powerful state

  • Switzerland is recognized

  • Pope reduced in power in H.R.E.

Treaty of the pyrenees
Treaty of the Pyrenees

  • France and Spain ended their war

  • Hapsburgs are weakened

  • Spain is weakened

The thirty years war



Significance? Impact?