Chapter 29Heat and Cold Applications Hot and Cold Applications
Chapter 29 Heat and Cold Applications Doctors order heat and cold applications to promote healing and comfort. They also reduce tissue swelling. Heat and cold have opposite effect on the body. Heat: dilates blood vessels-open, larger, expand Cold: constricts blood vessels- narrow, smaller
1. When applying a heat or cold applications a CNA mustcoverallapplications before applying them to the skin. Use flannel cover, towel, or pillowcase 2. The first 24 hrs of an injury apply a cold application after 24 hours you can apply a heat application. •Applying a application: -never apply next to skin (must cover) -heat or cold applications are applied to the skin no longer than 20minutes and checked every 5 minutes. -application remain on site for 20 minutes and 1 hour off -moist heat applications penetrates deeper than dry treatments. 3. When combining a heat & cold applications remember to: -start with a cold application and end with a cold application -apply cold application for 20 minutes then apply heat application for 20 minutes then 1 hour off (rest) -only use this method after 24 hrs of injury
4. Rules for applying heat/cold pg 605 box 29-1 5. 5. Observations reported to: -complaints of pain, numbness or burning -excessive redness -blisters -shivering -circulatory problems: temperature, skin color, capillary refill pale, white, or gray skin or cyanosis -time, site, and length of the application
6. Heat applications: dilates -relieve pain and muscular tension -relax muscles -➚ blood flow which brings in oxygen and nutrients -decrease joint stiffness 7. Cold applications: constricts- always used in the first 24 hours of injury. -helps stop bleeding -reduces swelling and pain -reduces fevers -decrease circulation -right after injury
8. Moist application Vs. Dry application A. Moist applications: when water is in contact with the skin. -soaks (warm/cold) -tub baths (warm) -sitz bathe (warm) B. Dry applications: no water involved with touching the skin -aquamatic K-pad (warm/cold) -electric heating pad -disposable pack (warm/cold) -ice bag (cold) -Ice bags and ice collars are dry packs. Make sure you cover the pack to prevent damage to skin. C. Moist heat penetrates deeper than dry. Pg 604 applications
9. Hyperthermia: body temperature is higher than normal. (Greater than 103') Heat stroke Hypothermia: is very low body temperature. (Less than 95') ☺cooling and warm blankets are used to treat hyperthermia and hypothermia. These blankets are electric devices and are made of rubber or plastic with tubes filled with fluid.
Different types to applications: •Hot compresses: moist washcloth ✓Water temp. 95-105 -dip washcloth in water and wring out -apply to area, cover with plastic wrap and bath towel sometimes aquathermia pad is applied over the wrap to maintain temp. -no longer than 20 minutes
•Warm soak: Putting the body into water. Smaller part of the body: ✓ temp. 95-105 -place waterproof pad over floor or area -fill basin ½ full -great for hands, feet and lower arm. -no longer than 15 to 20 minutes. -make sure the person’s comfort and body alignment are maintained during the soak.
•Sitz Bath: involves immersing the perineal and rectal areas in warm water. Use for rectal & pelvic surgery, hemorrhoids, after child birth. -plastic sitz bath goes on the toilet ✓ temp 95'-105' and fill 2/3 full -Last 20 minutes. -Increase blood flow to the area. Promotes healing, relieve pain, and soreness. -✓ every 5 minutes --watch person closely they may become weak, faint or drowsy.
•Aquathermia Pads (K-pad): Electric device used for dry heat. -Tubes inside the pad are filled with distilled water. Secure the pad in place with ties, tape or rolled gauze. Do not use pins they will puncture the pad. Do not place the pad under the person or under a body part.