types of domestic violence research evidence l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 49

Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 106 Views
  • Uploaded on

Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence. Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State. Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991. Catholic Family Services of Peel Dufferin

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Types of Domestic Violence Research Evidence' - gari


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
types of domestic violence research evidence

Types of Domestic ViolenceResearch Evidence

Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D.

Sociology, Women's Studies, and

African & African American Studies

Penn State

Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991

Catholic Family Services

of Peel Dufferin

June 3, 2010

McKeesport, PA

slide2
The Continuing Gender Debate
    • Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data
    • Explaining the ostensible contradictions
  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
    • The three major types (plus one or two)
    • Gender differences and sampling biases
  • Dramatic Differences Among the Types
    • Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation
    • Health consequences
    • Relationship consequences
    • Miscellaneous other major differences
  • Preview of Policy Implications

Screening, Primary prevention/education, Intervention

with perpetrators, Intervention for survivors, Law enforcement issues, Custody and access issues

the anti feminist backlash
The Anti-feminist Backlash
  • The Men’s Project. February 2009. Submission to Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General
    • …the Ontario Government may be in violation of their obligations… [because] the existing network of shelters for victims of family violence exclude men….
  • Pittsburgh Post Gazette July 26, 2009
    • Feminist ideologues ignore research that shows domestic violence is just as often started by women as by men
  • Globe and Mail July 27, 2002 (Web site)
    • Men as likely to suffer spousal abuse, Statscan says.
a small theory that reconciles the contradiction
A Small TheorythatReconciles the Contradiction
  • There is more than one type of partner violence
  • The different types are differently gendered
  • Both major sampling plans are biased
    • General survey studies are biased toward situationally-provoked violence, which women are as likely to perpetrate as are men
    • Agency studies are biased toward coercive controlling violence, perpetrated almost entirely by men
slide7
The Continuing Gender Debate

Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data

Explaining the ostensible contradictions

A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

The three major types (plus one or two)

Gender differences and sampling biases

Dramatic Differences Among the Types

Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation

Health consequences

Relationship consequences

Miscellaneous other major differences

Preview of Policy Implications

Screening, Primary prevention/education, Intervention

with perpetrators, Intervention for survivors, Law enforcement issues, Custody and access issues

slide8

Intimate Terrorism

Coercive Control

Violent Resistance

Resisting the Intimate Terrorist

Situational Couple Violence

Situationally-provoked Violence

Separation-instigated Violence

No History of Violence or Control

Mutual Violent Control

Two Intimate Terrorists

slide9

Domestic Violence/Intimate Terrorism

Two major subtypes: (a) Emotionally dependent; (b) Antisocial

coercive control scale
Coercive Control Scale

Thinking about your husband [yourself], would you say he [you]…

  • is jealous or possessive?
  • tries to provoke arguments?
  • tries to limit your contact with family and friends?
  • insists on knowing who you are with at all times?
  • calls you names or puts you down in front of others?
  • makes you feel inadequate?
  • shouts or swears at you?
  • frightens you?
  • prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask?

*These are items from the 1995 National Violence Against Women Survey (Tjaden & Thoennes, 1998). They were adapted from the Canadian Violence Against Women Survey (Holly Johnson, 1996).

gender symmetry asymmetry by type of violence 1970s pittsburgh violent husbands and wives
Gender Symmetry/Asymmetryby Type of Violence(1970s Pittsburgh: Violent husbands and wives)
slide13
The Continuing Gender Debate

Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data

Explaining the ostensible contradictions

A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

The three major types (plus one or two)

Gender differences and sampling biases

Dramatic Differences Among the Types

Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation

Health consequences

Relationship consequences

Miscellaneous other major differences

Preview of Policy Implications

Screening, Primary prevention/education, Intervention

with perpetrators, Intervention for survivors, Law enforcement issues, Custody and access issues

slide14

Pittsburgh data

Mixed sample

Intimate Terrorism

76% severe

75% escalated

1/25 couples

29% mutual

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

28% severe

28% escalated

1/8 couples

69% mutual

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc .

slide15

British data

Mixed sample

Intimate Terrorism

43% severe

78% escalated

15% mutual

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

13% severe

20% escalated

87% mutual

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc

slide16

Canadian GSS 1999

Previous partner

Intimate Terrorism

41% frequent violence

56% feared for life

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

8% frequent violence

17% feared for life

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc

slide17

Canadian GSS 2004

Previous/current partner

Intimate Terrorism

57% frequent violence

60% feared for life

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

8% frequent violence

9% feared for life

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc

need to re assess everything various studies by various social scientists
Need to Re-assess EverythingVarious studies by Various Social Scientists
  • Intergenerational “transmission”
    • SCV d = .11; IT d = .35
    • SCV odds ratio = 2.40; IT odds ratio = 7.51
  • Marriage
    • SCV b = -.62; IT b = .58
  • Gender traditionalism or hostility toward women
    • Traditionalism: SCV d = -.14; IT d = .80
    • Hostility: non-viol., SCV, IT, IT = 154, 153, 135, 131
  • Gender, frequency, severity, escalation, mutuality, impact on victim, impact on children, etc.
slide21
The Continuing Gender Debate

Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data

Explaining the ostensible contradictions

A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

The three major types (plus one or two)

Gender differences and sampling biases

Dramatic Differences Among the Types

Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation

Health consequences

Relationship consequences

Miscellaneous other major differences

Preview of Policy Implications

Screening, Primary prevention/education, Intervention with perpetrators, Intervention for survivors, Law enforcement issues, Custody and access issues

slide22
Preview of Policy Implications
    • Screening
    • Primary prevention/education
    • Intervention with perpetrators
    • Intervention for survivors
    • Law enforcement
    • Custody and access issues
we make big mistakes if we don t make big distinctions
We make big mistakes if we don’t make big distinctions.

Different types of partner violence have…

  • Different causes
  • Different developmental trajectories
  • Different effects
  • Different successful intervention strategies
support your local women s shelter
Support Your Local Women’s Shelter

Safety

Support

Information

Advocacy

Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991

Philadelphia, PA shelter

screening triage
Screening/Triage
  • Different models for different clients
  • To screen we need information on control and violence for both members
  • Safety first!
    • Initially assume the worst (intimate terrorism)
    • If SCV seems likely, try individual application of other approaches
    • If SCV and safety become clear, move to couple approaches with protections in place
primary prevention education you re the experts
Primary Prevention/EducationYou’re the experts
  • Intimate terrorism
    • Equality and respect
  • Violent resistance
    • Dangers of violent resistance
    • Safety planning
    • Entrapment/escape issues
  • Situational couple violence
    • Sources of conflict
    • Anger management tactics
    • Communication
    • Substance abuse
slide27
Intervention with PerpetratorsHold them all accountable in the criminal justice systemto provide an essential motivation for change
  • Intimate terrorism
    • Control-focused education
    • Perhaps different tactics for sub-types
  • Violent resistance
    • Alternatives to violence/Safety planning
    • Neutralize entrapment
  • Situational couple violence
    • Sources of conflict
    • Anger management
    • Communication counseling
    • Substance abuse rehab
intervention with perpetrators
Intervention with Perpetrators

Outcomes of Duluth-type

Batterer Intervention Program

(Thirteen Months Post-adjudication)

Eckhardt et al., 2008

slide29
Differential Success of Intervention Strategies by IT Sub-type(Percent non-violent two years after completing treatment)
intervention for survivors
Intervention for Survivors
  • Intimate terrorism
    • Long-term support
    • Alternatives to violent resistance
    • Empowerment to leave
    • Transitional support
  • Situational couple violence
    • Source of conflict
    • Anger management
    • Communication counseling
    • Substance abuse rehab
custody and access issues
Custody and Access Issues
  • Separation-instigated violence
  • Manipulative accusations
  • Resources for thorough evaluation
  • Custody/access options
    • Joint custody/Co-parenting
    • Parallel parenting, minimal couple contact
    • Supervised exchanges
    • Supervised access
    • No contact
slide32
Pittsburgh, 1978 (Frieze)

Married women from shelters and courts, matched with married women living on the same block (n=272)

86% White; 14% Black

Data on self and husband, reported by wives

Incident data on most violent incident

  • United States, 1995-96 (NVAW, Tjaden & Thoennes)

National random sample; subsample=4967 married women

83% White; 10% Black; 8% Hispanic (all races)

Data on current husbands, reported by wife

Incident data on most recent incident

  • Chicago, 1995 (Lloyd)

Random sample of women in a poor neighborhood (n=596)

5% White; 54% Black; 41% Hispanic

Data on male partners, reported by female partner

No incident data

pittsburgh control scale high 2 74 40 m 10 w
Pittsburgh Control Scale (High>2.74; 40%m; 10%w)
  • When you and your husband go places together, who decides where you will go?
  • If you disagree [about people you like], which people do the two of you spend more time with?
  • Does your husband know where you are when you are not together?
  • Are there places you might like to go but don’t because you feel your husband wouldn’t want you to? How often does this happen?
  • Do you generally do what your husband asks you to do?
  • Who decides how the family money will be spent in terms of major expenses?
  • [How often} does he try to get what he wants by doing any of the following?…emotionally withdraws?
  • …restricts your freedom?
  • …stops having sex with you?
  • …threatens to leave you?
  • Has your husband ever pressured you to have sexual relations?
pittsburgh other items
Pittsburgh: Other Items
  • “Has your husband ever gotten angry and threatened to use physical force with you?” followed by the item that is actually used: Has he ever actually slapped or pushed you or used other physical force with you?
  • Can you estimate how many times, in total, he was violent with you?
  • Did he become more violent over time?
  • How badly were you hurt [the time your husband was most violent with you]? Frieze codes: severe, severe superficial, severe trauma, and extreme permanent.
  • Were you afraid he would be violent again? Already “very frightened” at the first violent incident.
  • How would you rate the happiness of your marriage on a scale from 1-Not at all to 10-Very happy? Low=1-4, 32%
  • Is sex ever unpleasant for you?
  • Do you and your husband have a good time when you go out together?
chicago items
Chicago Items
  • Control Items: In the past 12 months, when you’ve had an argument, how often did your husband/boyfriend…
    • …say something to spite you?
    • ...insult you, swear at you, or call you out of your name?
    • ...accuse you of being with another man?
    • ...try to control your every move?
    • ...withhold money, make you ask for money or take yours?
    • …threaten you with a knife or gun?
    • ...threaten to kill you?
    • ...threaten to hurt your family or friends?
slide36

Pittsburgh-cutoff

Intimate Terrorism

67% severe

72% escalated

1/25 couples

37% mutual

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

29% severe

29% escalated

1/8 couples

74% mutual

Specific Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc.

nvaws control scale high 3 or more
NVAWS Control Scale(High = 3 or more)
  • “Thinking about your current husband, would you say he is jealous or possessive?”
  • “…tries to limit your contact with family and friends?”
  • “…insists on knowing who you are with at all times?”
  • “…calls you names or puts you down in front of others?”
  • “…makes you feel inadequate?”
  • “…shouts or swears at you?”
  • “…prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask?”

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • “…insists on changing residences even when you don’t want or need to?”
  • “…prevents you from working outside the home?”
control scale
Control Scale

“Thinking about your current husband, would you say he is jealous or possessive?”

  • “…tries to limit your contact with family and friends?”
  • “…insists on knowing who you are with at all times?”
  • “…calls you names or puts you down in front of others?”
  • “…makes you feel inadequate?”
  • “…shouts or swears at you?”
  • “…prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask?”

NVAWS

slide39
The Great Gender Debate
    • Distinguishing among types of partner violence resolves it
  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
    • The three major types
    • Gender differences and sampling biases
    • Other differences
  • Implications for Research and Theory
    • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed
    • Need a standard operationalization
    • Tricky sampling problems
    • Need for differentiated theory
  • Implications for Intervention
    • Screening/triage
    • Intervention with perpetrators
    • Intervention for survivors
    • Custody and access issues
slide41
The Great Gender Debate
    • Distinguishing among types of partner violence resolves it
  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
    • The three major types
    • Gender differences and sampling biases
    • Other differences
  • Implications for Research and Theory
    • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed
    • Need a standard operationalization
    • Tricky sampling problems
    • Need for differentiated theory
  • Implications for Intervention
    • Screening/triage
    • Intervention with perpetrators
    • Intervention for survivors
    • Custody and access issues
need a standard operationalization
Need a Standard Operationalization
  • Problems with cluster analysis
    • Extremely sensitive to sample
    • Not comparable across studies
  • Need a standard operationalization
    • NVAWS items
    • Tolman: Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory
    • Graham-Kevan & Archer: Controlling Behaviors Scale
    • Dutton & Goodman: Coercive control
need for differentiated theory
Need for Differentiated Theory
  • Intimate terrorism
    • Coercive control theory
    • Gender theory
    • Theories of paternalism
  • Violent Resistance
    • Coping
    • Entrapment
  • Situational couple violence
    • Family conflict theory
    • Communication
    • Anger management
    • Substance abuse
slide44
The Great Gender Debate
    • Distinguishing among types of partner violence resolves it
  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
    • The three major types
    • Gender differences and sampling biases
    • Other differences
  • Implications for Research and Theory
    • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed
    • Need a standard operationalization
    • Tricky sampling problems
    • Need for differentiated theory
  • Implications for Intervention
    • Screening/triage
    • Intervention with perpetrators
    • Intervention for survivors
    • Custody and access issues
slide45
A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
    • The three major types (plus one or two)
    • Gender differences and sampling biases
    • Some other basic differences
    • We need to re-assess everything we thought we knew
  • Implications for Intervention
    • Screening/triage
    • Primary prevention/education
    • Intervention with perpetrators
    • Intervention for survivors
    • Custody and access issues
slide49

Types of Domestic ViolenceResearch Evidence

The Continuing Gender Debate

A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

Dramatic Differences Among the Types

Preview of Policy Implications