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Projet d'extension du Laboratoire souterrain de Modane. F. Piquemal Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (CNRS/IN2P3 ). Conseil scientifique IN2P3, 5 mai 2011. Deep Underground Laboratories. Soudan. Boulby. SNOLab. YangYang. DUSEL Homestake. Modane. Canfranc. Gran Sasso. WIPP. Kamioka.

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Projet d'extension du Laboratoire souterrain de Modane

F. Piquemal

Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (CNRS/IN2P3)

Conseil scientifique IN2P3, 5 mai 2011

Deep Underground Laboratories









Gran Sasso




Underground Physics

Physics beyond the standard Model, search for rare events or decays

  • Proton decay GeV

    Origin of the creation of deep underground labs

    • SUSY

  • Neutrino oscillations and astronomy Mev - GeV

    • Solar neutrinos

    • Atmospheric

    • Accelerators

    • SuperNovae

  • Neutrino properties MeV

    • Double beta decay Nature and mass of neutrino

  • Dark matter keV

    • Universe content






Gran Sasso




DEEP Underground Labs in Europe

Coordination efforts in the

context of ILIAS

And ASPERA networks



Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane


Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane

4700 m.w.e



Built for aup experiment (proton decay) in 1981-1982

Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane

From a particle physics experiment to a multi-science plateform

1990- 2000

1979 - 1981

1982- 1990

2000 - ….

Prototypes Experiments



Neutrino: double beta decay, double EC

Dark matter

Nuclear structure

Logical test failures in microélectronics

Proton decay

Ultra low radioactivity measurement:Environmental sciences, applications

Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane

Depth: 4800 m.w.e.

Surface::400 m2

Volume : 3500 m3

Muon flux: 4 10-5 µ.m-2.s-1


Fast flux: 4 10-2 n.m-2.s-1

Thermal flux: 1.6 10-2 n.m-2.s-1

Radon: 15 Bq/m3

Access : horizontal

Budget (full cost): 1 M€/yr

Staff: 3 Physicists

3 Engineers

7 Technicians

~100 users

International associated laboratory agreement with

JINR Dubna (Russia) and CTU Prague (Czech Republic)

LSM: external facility

Offices, workshop, outreach space

and guest rooms

Permanent exhibition

for general public

2 000 visitors/year

Neutrino physics: NEMO -3

Double beta decay : Tracking + calorimeter - 100Mo 7 kg


x 2

Dark matter: EDELWEISS

Bolometric technique: Heat + Ionization Ge crystals - 40 kg

Other experiments

Neutrino physics

Double EC search (106Cd)

TGV-II (Ge with sheets of

Double EC candidates)

Nuclear physics

Super Heavy Element In nature

SHIN (osmium ore surrounded by 3He neutron detectors)



BiPo (related to SuperNEMO, measurement of thin film at the level of 1 µBq/kg)

In preparation

MIMACprototype (Dark matter TPC for DM directional detection

MEMPHYNO prototype for megaton – scale cherenkov detector

Scientific activities @ LSM

Neutron detectors at LSM

Sphere TPC

3He counters

Gd loaded liquid scintillator

Support from ILIAS TARI for the 3 detectors

Radon detectors – sensitivity ~1 mBq/kg

(electrostatic collection of radon daughters)

Saga University (Japan) and Dubna (Russia))

Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane

13 HPGe from 6 different laboratories of CNRS and CEA are available at LSM

  • - Material selection for astroparticle physics,

  • Environnemental research (oceanography,

    climat, retro-observation,….)

    - Environmental survey

    - Applications (wine datation, salt origin,…)

    - Developements of Ge detector (ILIAS)


In Europe, even remote mountain landscapes are man-made



Pollen data, Villy, Haute Savoie, 2250m asl

Pin cembro


Open space: deforestation


3600 cal. BP

First forest opening (human or climate?)

Pin cembro



5600 cal. BP

Pin cembro


Closing of the forest space

8000 cal. BP

Pin cembro

8900 cal. BP

Forest reconquest


La nano/micro-électronique au LSM

Les neutrons et les rayonnements alpha de la radioactivité naturelle

sont la source d’erreurs dans les circuits de microélectronique

L’utilisation de matériaux « radioactifs »

peut entrainer des incidents industriels


Le LSM est laboratoire de référence

pour la norme internationale JEDEC

en microélectronique

Monte-Carlo Simulation of Underground Experiments

  • Up to 20,000 h of cave characterization

  • -SER reevaluated to2079 FIT/MBit

  • Monte-Carlo simulation gives a contamination level by 238U impurities of 0.37 ppb

  • Very good agreement with wafer-level characterization (alpha emissivity) in the range [0.2-0.5] ppb

In 2006, the project of a safety galery along the Fréjus roadway tunnel

started to be realistic.

An unique opportunity

Deepest site in Europe (4800 mwe)

Known and « good » site (low convergence, dry, stiff rock)

Central location in Europe, easy access (plane, train car)

23 years experience in running such platform

Independent, convenient, safe, horizontal access

European Roadmap new projects

Integration of project to tunnel company planning and constraints

Performed pre study : moderate cost

ULISSE Project

ULISSE project

Scientific Motivation : To be able to host the next generation of neutrino and

dark matter experiments

To develop the multi-disciplinarity of the laboratory

LSM Extension project roadway tunnel

New laboratory

Present LSM

Safety gallery

Fréjus roadway tunnel

LSM Extension project roadway tunnel

LSM extension

ULISSE Project roadway tunnel

International call for letter of interest June 2008

12 LoI received and one Expression of Interest

Neutrino (DBD)

SuperNEMO (tracko-calo method)

COBRA (solid TPC)

Dark matter:

EURECA (Bolometers)

DARWIN (noble liquid) EoI


ULTIMA (Superfluid 3He)

Double EC

TGVIII Double EC (pixellized detector)

Double EC with Ge detectors

R&D for proton decay and neutrino physics


Supernovae neutrinos:

TPC sphere

Logical test failure

Low background techniqques

:Environmantal measurement

Sediment in alpin lakes

2 workshops to present projects

Reviewed by an International

Scientific Advisory Committee

SuperNEMO @LSM roadway tunnel

Tracko-calo detector 100 kg of isotopes (20 modules)


Inverted hierarchy

Normal hierarchy

100m roadway tunnel





20 modules shielded by water tanks

Space requirements: 32 m X 15 m

Minimum height: 13 m

EURECA infrastructure roadway tunnel


Dark matter search with 1 ton of bolometers

EURECA infrastructure roadway tunnel


Dimensions : 30 m x 14 m

Height : 14 m

EURECA infrastructure roadway tunnel

Low radioactivity plateform

Ultra low plateform LSM, EDYTEM (Université de Savoie), LSCE (CNRS and CEA),

LGGE (U. Grenoble,CNRS), LPSC (U. Grenoble, CNRS)

Improvement of detectors for low radioactivity measurements

Material selection

Use of radioactivity for environmental research :

Oceanography : Study of metals in the ocean, studies of water columns

Retro-observation : Human effect on the environment, study of Alpin lakes

Water quality : possibility to use sediments to know the state reference for the

Lake and the river as requested by EU

Studies of temperature water effect and fishing on the fish ressources



Expertises : environmental survey

Wine datation

Salt origin,....

Virtuous cycle
Virtuous cycle roadway tunnel

  • Modeling the impact of radiation on living cells: Geant4 DNA

  • Validation: need for relevant observables to characterize biological systems

    • Cell survival rate

    • DNA single or double strain breaks

    • Molecular biology: genomic mutations, gene expression

  • Experimental protocol: compare observables after controlled radiation exposure

    • In normal lab conditions

    • After beam irradiation (γ, e-, p, α)

    • Need for a reference point at zero-radiation: Modane

Biologists, computer scientists

Physicists, chemists

Geant4 DNA

The reference point lsm
The reference point: LSM roadway tunnel

  • In normal lab conditions, cultures are exposed to 10 Millions cosmic rays per day per square meter

    • Low but significant radiation exposure

  • In Modane, down to 4 cosmic rays per day per square meter

  • Goal: study evolution of model organisms in radiation free environment

    • Bacteria life cycle

    • Mutation rate

    • Localization of gene mutations, gene expression

    • DNA breaks

LSM Extension status roadway tunnel

LSM extension

1st EQUIPEX call ULISSE demand 19,5 M€

Including : Civil Work (12 M€)

Equipments (3 M€)

SuperNEMO 1st Module (1,5 M€)

EURECA (1,5 M€)

MIMAC (0,5 M€)

Low radioactivity plateform (1 M€)

ULISSE ranked at 61 position ex-aequo

New strategy : To find the cavity funding outside of EQUIPEX call

To submit equipments and detectors to 2nd call of EQUIPEX

A constraint is to confirm the option for the civil work before September 2011

Funding in discussion for civil work 12 M€

Expected contribution from State, Rhône-Alpes, Savoie and CNRS (~1 M€)

LSM Extension roadway tunnel

LSM extension

- Safety galery work started in October 2010

- 600 m excavated, TBM installation in progress

- Laboratory digging end 2012

- Option for laboratory to be confirmed before sept 2011

- Pre-study funded by LSM and UK in 2007

- Detailed Studies in 2011 (Rhône-Alpes, Savoie, CNRS)

New LSM in operation mid-2014

LSM Extension roadway tunnel

LSM extension

There are several project of underground laboratories around the world

The extension of LSM will be one of the depth laboratory and will be attractive by

the quality of the site and the access.

Complementray offer with the other EU labs

It will allow to host some of the projects of the astroparticle roadmap in particular on

double beta decay and dark matter searches.

Developments of the multidisciplibnaire plateform

Possibility to welcome new sciences : biology, geosciences,....

Laboratory built for at leats 40 years, very high scientific potential

Open to international partners

Factor of merit 150 nd
Factor of merit roadway tunnel150Nd

Activity = A

A0 =  M02 x G0 (Z, Q) x < m>2

150Nd is the best for GO phase space

Status on 150Nd enrichment roadway tunnel

Neodynium project started in 2006 with a strong involvement and support from

S. Jullian, G. Wormser and S. Katsanevas by studying the possibility to use


2008 : Collaboration 150Nd created between SuperNEMO and SNO+ collaboration

to study the possibilities to produce high quantities of 150Nd

MEMPHYS facility dismantled in 2008

2010 : possibility to study and built a dedicated industrial facility for 150Nd is

proposed by CEA

Le projet SuperNEMO – Le besoin roadway tunnel

  • Détecter la désintégration « double bêta sans émission de neutrino » pour déterminer la nature du neutrino

  • Isotopes retenus à ce jour :

    • 82Se :

      • approvisionnement possible à court terme

      • Moins favorable que 48Ca ou 150Nd (bruit, élément de matrice, …)

    • 150Nd ou 48Ca

      • Pas d’approvisionnement en grande quantité possible d’ici 2018

      • Probabilité plus élevée, meilleur rapport signal/bruit

  • Besoin estimé en Nd enrichi : 100 kg de Nd à 60% en 150Nd

Les technologies d’enrichissement du roadway tunnel150Nd

  • UCG

    • Russie : développement en discussion

  • Laser :

    • Russie : production au niveau du laboratoire

    • France :

      • Expérience MENPHIS : 200 kg of Uranium at 2003

      • Savoir-faire – Livre de procédé SILVA uranium

        => Proposition de réaliser une installation pour la

        production de Néodyme enrichi

Phase du projet roadway tunnel

1 roadway tunnel



1 : Décision d’engagement de la phase de définition et de conception (R&D + APS)

2 : Décision d’investissement dans l’installation

3 : Mise en opération

48Ca enrichment by KAERI (member of SuperNEMO collaboration) roadway tunnel

Grant from South Korean governement

  • Production

    (Production System)

    - Productivity: 25kg/yr (5g/hr)

Phase III



Phase II


  • Production Demonstration

    (Prototype System)

    - Productivity: 5kg/yr (1.0g/hr)

    - System Review


Phase I


  • Engineering Demonstration

    (Pilot System)

    - Fiber-based Lasers

    - Productivity: 1kg/yr (0.2g/hr)


Level of enrichment 25%, 50% possible