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Week Eleven Agenda. Announcements Link of the week Review week ten lab assignment Week ten expected outcomes Next lab assignment Break-out problems Upcoming deadlines Lab assistance. Link of the week. File System Define: File system

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Week Eleven Agenda
  • Announcements
  • Link of the week
  • Review week ten lab assignment
  • Week ten expected outcomes
  • Next lab assignment
  • Break-out problems
  • Upcoming deadlines
  • Lab assistance
link of the week
Link of the week

File System

  • Define: File system
  • Linux File System

ext3 includes journaling capabilities to allow faster recovery after unexpected reboots.

link of the week1
Link of the week

Define file system with journaling :

A file system with journaling is based on the techniques used from real-time transaction processing. A transaction log is used to store transactions either in a designated file system location or on a separate disk partition.

As changes are made to the file system, metadata changes are recorded to the log and writing entries to the log are done prior to writing the actual buffers to disk.

link of the week2
Link of the week

Benefits of journaling

In the event of a system crash, the entries in the log file remain intact and are replayed. Maintaining this level of data integrity ensures that the file system is in a constant state.

review week ten lab assignment
Review week ten lab assignment

Definition: Network Protocol is a standard procedure and format that two data communication devices must understand, accept and use in order to be able to communicate with each other.

A network protocol determines the following:

  • The type of error checking to be performed.
  • The data compression method to be used.
  • How the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message.
  • How the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message.
review week ten lab assignment1
Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/password file

Location: /etc/passwd

Field separators: Colon (:)

File format:



dandrear:x:1020:1021:dandrear user:/export/home/dandrear:/bin/ksh

Permissions on Einstein:

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1636 Aug 16 10:37 /etc/passwd

review week ten lab assignment2
Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/passwd file

  • Username: It is used when user logs in. It should be between 1 and 32 characters in length.
  • Password: An x character indicates that encrypted password is stored in /etc/shadow file.
  • User ID (UID): Each user must be assigned a user ID (UID). UID 0 (zero) is reserved for root and UIDs 1-99 are reserved for other predefined accounts. Further UID 100-999 are reserved by system for administrative and system accounts/groups.
  • Group ID (GID): The primary group ID (stored in /etc/group file)
  • User ID Info: The comment field. It allow you to add extra information about the users such as user’s full name, phone number etc. This field use by finger command.
  • Home directory: The absolute path to the directory the user will be in when they log in. If this directory does not exists then users directory becomes /
  • Command/shell: The absolute path of a command or shell (/bin/bash). Typically, this is a shell. Please not it does not have to be a shell.
review week ten lab assignment3
Review week ten lab assignment

Example of /etc/passwd file









review week ten lab assignment4
Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/passwd file

The /etc/passwd file is considered the user database for the system.

The information contained in the /etc/passwd file is useful for applications running on the system to access.

In summary, the /etc/passwd file is located under the system configuration and executables directory. The /etc/passwd file is the system’s master list of information about user accounts.

review week ten lab assignment5
Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/shadow file

Location: /etc/shadow

Field separators: Colon (:)

File format:




Permissions on Einstein:

-r-------- 1 root root 1107 Sep 5 15:24 /etc/shadow (Permission denied)

review week ten lab assignment6
Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/shadow file

  • User name : It is your login name
  • Password: It your encrypted password. The password should be minimum 6-8 characters long including special characters/digits
  • Last password change (last changed): Days since Jan 1, 1970 that password was last changed
  • Minimum: The minimum number of days required between password changes i.e. the number of days left before the user is allowed to change his/her password
  • Maximum: The maximum number of days the password is valid (after that user is forced to change his/her password)
  • Warn : The number of days before password is to expire that user is warned that his/her password must be changed
  • Inactive : The number of days after password expires that account is disabled
  • Expire : days since Jan 1, 1970 that account is disabled i.e. an absolute date specifying when the login may no longer be used
  • Unused field:
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Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/shadow file

  • The “X” in the /etc/passwd file password field indicates that the shadow file contains the encrypted password.
  • Red Hat Linux uses MD5 by default.
  • Most Linux systems utilize MD5 as their encrypted form.
  • MD5 requires 34 characters in encryption form.
  • MD5 always begins with $1$
  • The shadow file is only readable by root.

In summary, the /etc/shadow file contains the encoded passwords and password settings. The /etc/shadow file contains all the guide lines that pertain to the administration of the password.

review week ten lab assignment8
Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/group file

Location: /etc/group

Field separators: Colon (:)

File format:

Group name:Password:GID:User_list




Permissions on Einstein:

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 833 Aug 16 10:37 group

review week ten lab assignment9
Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/group file

  • Group name: Name of the group.
  • Password: The group password is encrypted. If this field is empty, no password is needed. Otherwise, an “X” in the field indicates the password is stored in the /etc/gshadow file.
  • GID: The numerical group ID and/or unique group identifier.
  • User_list: All the group member's user names, separated by commas.

Most Unix-like systems impose a limit of 16 to 32 group memberships per user.

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Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/group file












Linux utilizes the vigrcommand used to edit the /etc/group file.

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Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/group file

In summary, the /etc/group file identifies a collection of users who generally share similar functions. These groupings are not limited to departments or project.

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Review week ten lab assignment

/etc/gshadow file

  • Group-name: is the name of the group
  • Password: is the encoded version of the password
  • Group-admins: is the list of members in the group
  • Additional- users: a copy of additional members.

In summary, the /etc/gshadow file is utilized to store the /etc/group password.

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Review week ten lab assignment

File Summary

/etc/passwd - user account information

/etc/shadow - secure user password information

/etc/group - group information

/etc/gshadow - secure group password information

User account files

The /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, and /etc/group files are considered the most important files for storing user account and authentication information.

Command to add a user account

Linux/Knoppix –useradd

Command to remove a user account

Knoppix – deluser

Linux - userdel

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Review week ten lab assignment

Managing Users

Adding a user to a computer involves several steps before the user can actually log in and perform user operations.

Every user that intends to utilize a computer must first gain access to that system, then go through an initialization process found under the user’s home directory. The new user initialization process begins by reading and executing the commands and environmental variables found in the $HOME/.profile file. Normally, the .profile is run automatically when you log into the system and the user’s environment is set up silently. Once the user is granted access permission to the system, a shell is spawn to allow the user to interact with the system.

Display the ~dandrear/.profile

When adding a new user account to the system, the administrator assigns the username a user identification number (UID). The UID is used internally by the system to identify each user. Duplicating the UID causes the accounts to share an identity in the system.

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Review week ten lab assignment


& symbol represents the background process.

Once a background process is launched by a terminal session, the process becomes unattached to the terminal that launched it. Background processes are terminated with PID=n and typing kill -9 PID

Example: simple_script &

Once a foreground process is started, it remains in the foreground until it completes, because it remains attached to the terminal. Foreground process by typing Ctl-C or Ctl-Z

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Review week ten lab assignment

An autonomous process is one that is not started by the kernel.

The daemon processes are started as part of the boot process and run until the system is shut down.

The UNIX inetd daemon may start the telnetd to handle a telnet connection.

The UNIX inetddaemon may start the ftpd to handle an ftp connection.

One daemon may start another; the UNIX inetddaemonwill accept a network connection and then start another daemon to handle the connection, based on the type of connection. There are various processes in UNIX that are not owned by a user, but exist to provide services. These processes are often called "daemons.“

The inetdsuperserverruns continuously listening for network connections. This type of daemon is more susceptible to be system breaches.

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Review week ten lab assignment

xinetd daemon

The Linusxinetddaemon is a more secure replacement for the inetdsuperserver. The xinetdsuperserver listens for network connections. When a connection is made, it launches a specific daemon and forwards the data from the socket to the daemon’s standard input.

Basically, the xinetdsuperserver works on demand.

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Review week ten lab assignment

Single threaded process is when a process only performs one task.

Multi-threaded process is when a process can perform multiple tasks concurrently without extra overhead needed to create a new process. Word processor is a multi-threaded process.

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Review week ten lab assignment

The kernel is responsible for creating the init process. This creation is referred to as spontaneous and/or hand-crafted.

Processes go through various process states during their existence. These are transitory states managed by the operating system (OS). The specifics of these process states vary from one OS to another, as well as state names.

Linux Process states:

- Waiting(process scheduler - load from secondary storage to main memory)

- Running(after a process is assigned a processor by a short - term scheduler, context switch is performed)

- Stopped(The process has been stopped, usually by receiving a signal. A process that is being debugged can be in a stopped state)

- Zombie (This is a halted process for some reason. Still has a task_struct data structure)

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Review week ten lab assignment

Zombie process is a process that has completed execution but still has an entry in the process table, allowing the process that started it to read its exit status.

Locate a zombie process on

Orphan process is a process whose parent process has terminated or finished.

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Review week ten lab assignment


This init script performs basic system configuration which includes setting the system clock, hostname, and keyboard mapping; setting up the swap partitions; checking the remaining file system for errors; and turning on the quota management.


This init script runs the scripts for the services that need to be started when you first bring the system up and that need to be started or stopped when the system foes from single user mode to multiuser mode and back down again.

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Review week ten lab assignment


This init directory contains shell rc scripts and run via symbolic links in the /etc/rc.d/rcn.d directories, where n is the runlevel the system is entering. The following scripts reside in this directory.


This file is executed after the init scripts. Commands can be placed in this file to customize the system. These commands are best suited to execute in the background and after the initialization process completes.

review week ten lab assignment25
Review week ten lab assignment


This directory contains scripts the start and stop during a specific run level. The following scripts execute during run level one (1):

K10cups K25sshd K50netdump K74nscd K86nfslock K91isdn S01sysstat

Notice the numbering from 00 to 99. This numbering provides positioning of a script within the whole scheme of execution.

week ten eleven twelve expected outcomes
Week ten, eleven, & twelve expected outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to:

  • Manipulate user accounts.
  • Describe how cron is used to invoke repetitive processes.
  • Manipulate process structure including:

a) fork and execute

b) Initialization process

c) Background/foreground

d) PS tool

  • Explain basic UNIX security issues.
  • Describe disk and file system structure.
  • Use backup and restore archival operations on a system.
  • Establish network services.
  • Investigate the structure of the LDAP directory using LDAP commands.
next lab assignment
Next Lab Assignment
  • HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) is a language used to create documents and the World Wide Web.

HTML defines the structure and layout of a Web document by using a variety of tags and attributes.

The correct structure for an HTML document starts with (enter here what document is about) and ends with . All the information you'd like to include in your Web page fits in between the and tags.

Define: Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

It is a standard used for interfacing between applications with information servers (Web server).

Application: CGI scripts execute in real-time and their output is dynamic in content.

Scripts are designed to be executed from a Web daemon that will transmit information to another software facilitator (database engine), and receive the results back again and display them to the client.

next lab assignment1
Next Lab Assignment

fork command

Is a command that causes the shell to fork a new process, creating a duplicate of the shell process (subshell).

exec command

The new process attempts to exec the command. If the command is a binary executable program, like a compiled C program, exec succeeds and the system overlays the newly created sub-shell with the executable program.

Both commands are system calls that are executed by the operating system.

next lab assignment2
Next lab assignment

/etc/inittab describes which processes are started at boot-up and during normal operation. The /etc/inittab format: id:runlevels:action:process

# System initialization.

10:0:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 0

11:1:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 1

12:2:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 2

13:3:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 3

14:4:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 4

15:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5

16:6:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 6

# Run mingetty in standard runlevels

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1

2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty2

3:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3

next lab assignment3
Next lab assignment
  • The runlevel field may be a single value for a process.

# /etc/inittab run levels 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6








next lab assignment4
Next lab assignment
  • The runlevel field may contain multiple runlevels for a process.

# /etc/inittab run levels 2, and 3

1:23:respawn:/sbin/mingety tty1

2:23:respawn:/sbin/mingety tty2

3:23:respawn:/sbin/mingety tty3

4:23:respawn:/sbin/mingety tty4

5:23:respawn:/sbin/mingety tty5

6:23:respawn:/sbin/mingety tty6

next lab assignment5
Next lab assignment

/etc/inittab format


- id is a unique sequence of 1-4 characters which identify an entry in /etc/inittab

- runlevel is a specific process level that action should be taken

- action describes which action should be performed

- process specifies which process to be executed.

next lab assignment6
Next lab assignment

respawn – The process will be restarted whenever it terminates.

wait – The process will be started once when the specific runlevel is entered and init will wait for its termination.

once – The process will be executed once when the specific runlevel is entered.

boot – The process will be executed during system initialization.

initdefault – This entry specifies the runlevel which should be entered after system boot.

sysinit – The process will be executed during system boot. It will be executed before any boot or boot wait entries.

next lab assignment7
Next lab assignment

powerwait – The process will be executed when the power goes down.

powerokwait – This process will be executed as soon as init process is informed that the power has been restored.

powerfailnow – This process will be executed when the init process is informed that the battery of the external UPS power is failing.

ctraltdel – The process is executed when the init process receives the SIGINT signal. This means that someone on the system console has pressed the Ctrl-Alt-Del key combination.

next lab assignment8
Next lab assignment

/etc/init.d/rc.d/crond is started automatically started when entering multi-user runlevel. crond is a daemon that executes scheduled commands.

/etc/crontab file is a file which contains the schedule of entries to be run and at specified times.

# Einstein /etc/crontab entries

01 * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.hourly

02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.daily

22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.weekly

42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.monthly

next lab assignment9
Next lab assignment

crontab format

* * * * * command to be executed

1 2 3 4 5

First *: min (0-59)

Second *: hour (0-23)

Third *: day of month (1-31)

Fourth *: month (1-12)

Fifth *: day of week (0-6) (Sunday=0)

Example: 40 18 * * * rm /export/home/someuser/*

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Next lab assignment



crontab commands

crontab -e Edit crontab file

crontab –l Display your crontab file

crontab –r Remove your crontab file

crontab –v Display last time crontab was edited.

break out problems
Break-out problems
  • What is an incremental back up?
  • What is a full back up?
  • List the different process states used on a Linux system.
  • Explain the relationship between the /etc/passwd file and the /etc/shadow file.
  • What functionality does journaling provide a file system?
  • Describe how a background process works with respect to the terminal.
  • Describe how a foreground process works with respect to the terminal.
  • Syntax used in the /etc/inittab file






9) Unix commands:


uname –n

uname –a

uname –r

reading assignments
Reading assignments
  • Outline reading assignments
  • Review Modules 4,5,6, and 7.
upcoming deadlines
Upcoming deadlines

Account/LDAP Script, 10-1 is due 3/22/09.

Process, 10-2 is due 3/22/09.

Programming Assignment 2, 12-1 is due 4/5/09.

Archives Exercise, 12-2 is due 4/5/09.

Programming Assignment 3, 14-1 is due 4/18/09.

Presentations for Public Domain/Open Source Lab Assignment 13-1 will be 4/6 and 4/13.

Final Exam, 15-1 will be administered 4/13 through 4/18.

Final Exam Outline will be posted on the Bulletin Board 3/29/09, two weeks prior to the final exam date. This outline will be considered a “living” document. I will add additional information to it up to one week prior to the exam. All additional information posted after the initial posting will be highlighted/indicated.

lab assistance
Lab assistance
  • Questions
  • Comments
  • Concerns
  • I will be available after this Franklin Live session to discuss any problems and/or concerns regarding lab assignments.