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Plant Transport AS. Much Knowledge So Application. Overview. Shoots – Leafs & Stems Roots – Underground 3 Tissue types in the above Dermal, Vascular, & Ground 5 Types of Differentiated Plant Cells Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma Xylem Phloem. Shoots.

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plant transport as

Plant Transport AS

Much Knowledge

So Application

  • Shoots – Leafs & Stems
  • Roots – Underground
  • 3 Tissue types in the above
    • Dermal, Vascular, & Ground
  • 5 Types of Differentiated Plant Cells
    • Parenchyma
    • Collenchyma
    • Sclerenchyma
    • Xylem
    • Phloem
  • Plant stuff that is above ground
    • Leaves – main photosynthetic organ
    • Stems – displays the leaves
  • 2 types of buds (growing parts)
    • Terminal (Apical) Bud – located at top end of stem
      • Growth usually occurs at this bud
    • Axillary Bud – located in the “v” between leaf and stem
      • Can potentially form a branch
  • What is the advantage to a plant to only grow at the apical and axillary buds?
  • A tree house was built between the stem and a branch without axillary buds. The growth rate of the apical buds is 2 feet per year, the growth rate of the axillary buds is 3 feet per year, and the tree house was built at a height of 10 feet. What will be the height of the tree house in 10 years?

Multicellular organ

Anchors plant

Absorbs water & Minerals

May store sugar & starches

Fibrous Roots – mat of thin roots that are spread just below the root’s surface

Taproots – 1 thick, vertical root with many lateral roots that emanate from it

root hairs
Root Hairs
  • Located at the tips of roots
  • Dramatically increase the surface area
  • Efficient absorption of H2O and minerals
  • Mycorrhizae – Symbiotic relationship
      • Root tips & fungus – assist in absorption
      • Found in vast majority of plants

Which root type is focused on absorption?

Which root type is focused on storage?

Fibrous roots are not efficient absorbers, so what structure is responsible for absorption?

What is the function of root hairs or mycorrhizae?


3 Tissue types

1. Dermal

 Cover entire plant

 Protect against water loss

 Nonspecific defense mechanism

2. Vascular

 Continuous throughout the plant

 Transports material between roots and shoots

a) Xylem– transports water & minerals up from the roots

b) Phloem– transports food from the leaves to rest of plant


 Tissue that is neither dermal nor vascular

 Pith – ground tissue inside vascular tissue

 Cortex– ground tissue outsidevascular tissue

 Parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma

3 cell types in ground tissue
3 Cell Types in Ground Tissue

1. Paren(chyma)-- Most abundant cell type-- Present throughout the plant-- perform most of the metabolic functions of the plant (Photosynthesis & Respiration)

2. Collen(chyma)-- Support growing parts of the plant-- Grouped into cylinders

  • Scleren(chyma)-- Occupy NonGrowing parts of plant-- Cell wall makes up to 90% of cell space-- May contain lignin (wood)-- Dead cells at maturity
vascular tissue xylem
Vascular Tissue - Xylem

– Water conducting cells-- 2 types: Tracheids & Vessels-- Both types are dead at functional maturity

-- Tracheids found in ALL vascular plants -- Long thin cells with lignin -- Water moves through the pits

-- Vessels(Vessel Elements) found primarily in angiosperms -- Have pits & perforated end walls for water movement

vascular tissue phloem
Vascular Tissue - Phloem

-- Transport Sucrose & other organic compounds

2 Types: Sieve-tube elements & Companion Cells -- Both types are alive at functional maturity

  • Sieve Tubes-- Consist of chains of cells-- Called sieve-tube element-- Highly modified for transport-- Lack nucleus, ribosomes, & vacuoles
  • Companion Cells-- Provide for the molecular needs of the sieve-tube elements-- Connected to the sieve-tube elements by plasmodesmata
  • Why would there be more vascular tissue in the roots instead of the stem or leaves?
  • Why is there more dermal tissue in the leaves than stem or roots?
  • Which part of the plant (leaves, stem, roots) would you expect to have the most parenchymal cells?
  • Which type of xylem has the larger cross section?
  • How are sieve-tube elements functionally different than the companion cells?

Roots –

Cross Section

  • Stomata interrupts the underside of the leaf
      • Flanked by guard cells – open/close the stomata
  • Ground tissue is in between upper & lower epidermis, in the mesophyll
      • Ground tissue is composed of parenchyma cells
          • Site of photosynthesis are parenchyma cells
          • Palisade mesophyll is elongated to maximize photosynthesis
          • Spongy mesophyll is

Why are there two types of mesophyll?

Why would there be spaces in the spongy mesophyll?

Why would there not be spaces in the palisade mesophyll?