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2. Organizational Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Information Systems. Discuss ways in which information systems enable cross-functional business processes and business processes for a single functional area. Become familiar with business process defi nition , measurement, and analysis.

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Organizational Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Information Systems


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    1. 2 Organizational Strategy, Competitive Advantage, and Information Systems

    2. Discuss ways in which information systems enable cross-functional business processes and business processes for a single functional area. • Become familiar with business process definition, measurement, and analysis. • Compare and contrast business process improvement, business process reengineering, and business process management to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each one. • Identify effective IT responses to different kinds of business pressures. • Describe the strategies that organizations typically adopt to counter Porter’s five competitive forces. • Describe the characteristics of effective business–information technology alignment.

    3. Business Processes • Business Process Reengineering, Business Process Improvement, and Business Process Management • Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and Information Technology Support • Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems • Business–Information Technology Alignment

    4. [ Opening Case A Tool to Combat Terrorism and Fight Crime ] • The Problem • A Potential IT Solution • The Results • What We Learned from This Case

    5. 2.1 Sharing Bicycles

    6. 2.1 Cross-Functional Processes Information Systems and Business Processes Business Processes

    7. Business Processes • A business processis: • an ongoing collection of related activities that create a product or service of value to the organization, its business partners, and/or its customers. • Comprised of three elements: • Inputs • Resources • Outputs • Efficiency vs. Effectiveness

    8. Cross-Functional Processes • No single functional area is responsible • steps executed in a coordinated, collaborative way • Procurement & Fulfillment Cross-functional processes

    9. Example: Purchasing Airline Tickets Online

    10. Receive Ticket Order Traveler Airline Web Site Seats Available NO Notify Traveler Plan Trip YES Reserve Seats Check Flights NO Frequent Flyer Mileage Sufficient? Use Credit Card? NO Seats Available? NO YES YES Charge Credit Card YES Subtract Mileage Submit Ticket Order Charge OK? NO Notify Traveler Receive e-Ticket YES Confirm Flight(s) Issue e-Ticket

    11. Information Systems & Business Processes • IS’s vital role in three areas of business processes • Executing the process • Capturing and storing process data • Monitoring process performance

    12. Executing the Process • IS’s help Execute the Process by: • Informing employees when it is time to complete a task • Providing required data • Providing a means to complete the task

    13. Capturing & Storing Process Data • Processes generate data • Dates, times, product numbers, quantities, prices, addresses, names, employee actions • IS’s capture & store process data (aka, transaction data) • Capturing & storing data provides immediate, ‘real time’ feedback

    14. Monitoring Process Performance • IS evaluates information to determine how well a process is being executed • Evaluations occur at two levels • Process level • Instance level • Monitoring identifies problems for process improvement

    15. 2.2 Reengineering Improvement Management Business Process Improvement, Business Process Reengineering, and Business Process Management

    16. Measures of Excellence in Executing Business Processes • Customer Satisfaction • Cost Reduction • Cycle and fulfillment time reduction • Quality • Differentiation • Productivity

    17. Business Process Reengineering (BPR) • Michael Hammer & James Champy, 1993, Reengineering the Corporation • BPR • A radical redesign of an organization’s business processes to increase productivity and profitability • Examines business processes with a “clean slate” approach

    18. Business Process Improvement (BPI) • BPI • An incremental approach to move an organization toward business process centered operations • Focuses on reducing variation in process outputs by identifying the underlying cause of the variation • Six Sigma is a popular methodology for BPI

    19. Business Process Improvement (BPI) • Five basic phases of successful BPI • Define • Measure • Analyze • Improve • Control

    20. BPR versus BPI BPI BPR • Low risk / low cost • Incremental change • Bottom-up approach • Takes less time • Quantifiable results • All employees trained in BPI • High risk / high cost • Radical redesign • Top-down approach • Time consuming • Impacts can be overwhelming • High failure rate

    21. Business Process Management (BPM) • A management system used to support continuous BPI initiatives for core business processes over time • Important components of BPM: • Process modeling • Web-enabled technologies • Business Activity Monitoring (BAM)

    22. Business Process Management (BPM) • Business Process Management Suite (BPMS) • An integrated set of applications used for BPM • Emerging Trend of Social BPM • Technologies enabling employees to collaborate across functions internally and externally using social media tools

    23. 2.2 Chevron

    24. 2.3 Business Pressures Organizational Responses Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and Information Technology Support

    25. Business Pressures • Market Pressures • Technology Pressures • Societal/Political/Legal Pressures

    26. Market Pressures • Globalization • Changing Nature of the Workforce • Powerful Customers

    27. Globalization • The integration and interdependence of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, made possible by rapid advances in IT.

    28. Globalization • The World is Flat, by Thomas Friedman • Technology is leveling global competition making the world “Flat” • Friedman’s Three Eras of Globalization • Globalization 1.0 • Globalization 2.0 • Globalization 3.0

    29. Globalization 1.0 (1st Era) 1492 - 1800 • Focus: • Countries • Drivers: • Muscle • Horse power • Wind power • Steam power

    30. Globalization 2.0 (2nd Era) 1800 - 2000 • Focus: • Companies • Main Driver: • Multinational Companies • First Half of 2.0 • Driver: Falling transport costs • Second Half of 2.0 • Driver: Falling telecom costs

    31. Globalization 3.0 (3rd Era) 2000 - Present • Focus: • Groups & Individuals • Drivers: • Convergence of 10 forces or “Flatteners”

    32. The Ten “Flatteners” • Outsourcing • Offshoring • Supply Chaining • Insourcing • Informing • The Steriods • 11/9/1989: Berlin Wall Falls • 8/9/1995: Netscape Goes Public • Development of Workflow Software • Uploading

    33. Changing Nature of the Workforce • Workforce is Becoming More Diversified • Women • Single Parents • Minorities • Persons with Disabilities • IT is Enabling Telecommuting Employees

    34. Powerful Customers • Increasing consumer sophistication & expectations • Consumer more knowledgeable about • Products and services • Price comparisons • Electronic auctions • Customer Relationship Management

    35. Technology Pressures • Technological Innovation & Obsolescence • Rapid development of both New and Substitute Products & Services • Information Overload • Vast stores of data, information, & knowledge • Difficulties in managing data for decision making

    36. Societal / Political / Legal Pressures • Social Responsibility • Compliance with Government Regulations • Protection against Terrorist Attacks • Ethical Issues

    37. Social Responsibility • Green IT • Facilities design and management • Carbon management • International and U.S. state environmental laws • Energy management • Digital Divide • One Laptop per Child (OLPC) http://one.laptop.org

    38. Social Responsibility & Philanthropy in Business • www.patientslikeme.com • www.giftflow.org • www.ourgoods.org • www.sparked.com • www.thredup.com • www.collaborativeconsumption.com • www.kiva.org • www.donorschooce.org

    39. Compliance with Government Regulations • Sarbanes-Oxley Act • USA PATRIOT act • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act • Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act (HIPAA)

    40. Protection against Terrorist Attacks • Employees in military reserves called to active duty • Information Technology used to identify and protect against terrorists and cyberattacks • Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) US-VISIT program • Network of biometric-screening systems

    41. Ethical Issues • General standards of right and wrong • Information-processing activities • Monitoring employee email • Monitoring employee Internet activity at work • Privacy of customer data

    42. 2.3 “Bring Your Own Device” Can Cause Problems

    43. 2.4 The Surui Tribe of the Amazon

    44. Organizational Responses • Strategic Systems • Customer Focus • Make-to-Order and Mass Customization • Bodymetrics (www.bodymetrics.com) • E-Business & E-Commerce

    45. 2.5 Massechusetts Mutual Transforms Its Information Systems

    46. 2.4 Porter’s Competitive Forces Model Porter’s Value Chain Model Strategies for Competitive Advantage Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems

    47. 2.4 Competitive Strategy A statement identifying a business’s approach to compete, it’s goals, and the plans and policies required to attain those goals. Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems

    48. 2.4 Strategic Information Systems (SIS) An information system that helps an organization achieve and maintain a competitive advantages Competitive Advantage and Strategic Information Systems

    49. Porter’s Competitive Forces Model

    50. Porter’s Competitive Forces Model • Threat of Entry of New Competitors • Bargaining Power of Suppliers • Bargaining Power of Customers/Buyers • Threat of Substitute Products or Services • Rivalry Among Existing Firms within the Industry