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Developments (last 20 years). Increasing interest in and advocacy for mixed methods Evolving understanding of what is mixed methods research Developing designs and innovative techniques

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Developments last 20 years
Developments (last 20 years)

  • Increasing interest in and advocacy for mixed methods

  • Evolving understanding of what is mixed methods research

  • Developing designs and innovative techniques

  • “The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697)

Development of nih guidelines 1999
Development of NIH guidelines (1999)

“Combining qualitative and quantitative

methods has gained broad appeal in

public health research.” (1999)

- Mentioned several

approaches for combining

qualitative and

quantitative research

- Advanced considerations for deciding

what model to use (literature

available, prior studies,

realistic design, expertise)

- Suggested to describe each

method thoroughly

Books on

Mixed Methods


14+ books on mixed methods research

have been written

since 1988

A New



Devoted to




Quality and


Mixed Method


Editors: John W. Creswell

and Abbas Tashakkori

Managing Editor: Vicki L.

Plano Clark

Email: [email protected]


  • Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008

  • Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009

  • Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers

Critics creswell 2007
Critics (Creswell, 2007)

  • Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods?

    • Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 42-61.

    • Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3), 195-2003.

    • Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12, 2006.

  • What are the limits for mixed methods research?

    • Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36, 43-53.

    • Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36, 149-158.

  • Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research?

    • Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 134-146.

Mixed methods is not that different from other methods
Mixed methods is not that different from other methods

Identifying a research problem

Reviewing the literature

Identifying a purpose and stating questions

Views of knowledge


Collecting data

Analyzing and interpreting data

Reporting and evaluating the study

Mixed methods within designs
Mixed Methods within Designs




Case Study Research

Narrative research

Qual ----- Quan

Qual----- Quan


Qual---- Quan

What is this method called
What is this Method Called?

  • Multi-method

  • Triangulation

  • Integrated

  • Combined

  • Quantitative and qualitative methods

  • Multi-methodology

  • Mixed methodology

  • Mixed-method

  • Mixed research

  • Mixed methods

Mixing how
Mixing (How)

Converge data:




Connect data:




Embed the data:

Quan data

Qual data

Mixing why
Mixing – Why?

  • Validity – to corroborate quan and qual data

  • Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengths

  • Completeness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan alone

  • Process – quan provides outcomes; qual, the processes

  • Explanation – qual can explain quan results or vice-versa

  • Unexpected results – surprising results from one, other explains

  • Instrument development – qual employed to design instrument

  • Credibility – both approaches enhance integrity of findings

  • Context – qual provides context; quan provides general.

  • Utility – more useful to practitioners

Purist Stance

Smith & Heshusius, (1986)

“Incompatibility thesis”

“The contention of this

paper is that the claim of

compatibility, let alone one

of synthesis, cannot be

sustained.” (p. 4)

Single paradigm stance
Single” Paradigm Stance

  • Pragmatism (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003)

    • Focus on research question

    • What “works,” consequences

    • Multiple methods – large toolkit

  • Transformative (Mertens, 2003)

    • Transform lives of underrepresented, marginalized groups

    • Incorporate this focus into all phases of research

Developing designs and innovative techniques
Developing Designs and Innovative Techniques

Key Developments

  • Notation

  • Typologies

  • Diagrams of procedures

  • Complex evaluation models

  • Reconceptualizing designs

  • Emergence of innovations in procedures

    • Unusual blends

    • Methodological issues

    • Data analysis techniques

    • Presentation techniques

Parsimonious Designs (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007)

QUANPre-test Data & Results

QUANPost-test Data & Results




QUANData & Results

QUALData & Results


Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs

Triangulation Design

Embedded Design

qualData & Results

QUANData & Results


Following up

quanData & Results

QUALData & Results


Building to




After-intervention qual


Sequential Designs Mixed Methods Designs

Explanatory Design

Exploratory Design

Sequential Embedded Design

Example of

A Diagram

Complex Mixed Methods

Evaluation Designs

(Nastasi, Hitchcock,

Sarkar, Burkholder,

Varjas & Jayasena, 2007)

Study of mental health

interventions for youth

in Sri Lanka