Ap human geography
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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. The 5 Themes of geography. 5 Themes of Geography. Location Movement Human Environment Interaction Place Region. 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY. LOCATION. Relative Location – based on a relationship to a known location. Chicago is located near Lake Michigan

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Ap human geography


The 5 Themes of geography

5 themes of geography
5 Themes of Geography

  • Location

  • Movement

  • Human Environment Interaction

  • Place

  • Region


  • Relative Location – based on a relationship to a known location. Chicago is located near Lake Michigan

  • Absolute Location – Exact location on earth based on a grid system comprised of lines of Longitude and Latitude

Lines of latitudes
Lines of Latitudes

Lines of Latitudes are measured from the center of the earth and represent the angle from center

Parallels are circle drawn around the earth parallel to the equator at right angles to the meridians

Each Degree = approximately 69 miles

Line of longitude
Line of Longitude

Meridians are arcs drawn between north and south poles.

World geographic grid
World Geographic Grid

1° = 60'. One minute of arc can be further subdivided into yet smaller fractions of a degree called seconds (again, don't confuse this with the seconds that we use to measure time - they are not the same thing). One minute of arc is equal to 60 seconds of arc, 1' = 60" - the double tick mark is used to designate seconds.

  • What are minutes?

  • What are seconds?

Fig. 1-8: The world geographic grid consists of meridians oflongitude and parallels of latitude. The prime meridian ( 0º) passes through Greenwich, England.

Global positioning system gps
Global Positioning System (GPS) A-F.

  • System that accurately determines the precise position of something on earth.

  • In United States 24 satalites are used to track and figure locations

Geographic information system gis
Geographic Information System (GIS) A-F.

  • A computer system that can capture, store, analyze, and display geographic data.

  • GIS allows a person to layer geographic or data on to a map

Remote Sensing A-F. is any technique used for measuring, observing, or monitoring a process or object without physically touching the object under observation.

- Use satellites orbiting the Earth or from other long- distances.

- Optical and radio telescopes, cameras, even eyesight are types of remote sensing.


World time zones

World Time Zones

360° ÷ 24 hours = 15° per hour

Fig. 1-9: The world’s 24 standard time zones each represent about 15° of longitude. They are often depicted using the Mercator projection.


  • Refers to the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the earth

    • Spatial Interaction between places depends on the distance among places, accessibility of places, and the transportation and communication connectivity among places

      • Distance is measured physical space between places

      • Accessibility is the ease of reaching one location from another

      • Connectivity is the degree of linkage between locations in a network

Human environment interaction
Human Environment Interaction A-F.

  • Describes how people modify or alter the environment to fit individual or society needs

    • Our ability to alter our environment has led to the end of environmental determinism

    • How do humans adapt to or alter their environment

  • Humans cannot live in the F toos:

    • Too hot

    • Too cold

    • Too Wet

    • Too Dry

    • Too Hilly


  • All places on Earth have unique human and physical characteristics

  • The description of what and how we see and experience a certain aspect of the Earth’s surface

  • When geographers are considering a specific location it is identified in 4 ways.

    • Place name – toponym is the name given to a place

    • SITE –physical character of a place

    • Situation – how a location relates to other locations

    • Mathematical Location – as in longitude and latitude

What is the difference between site and situation


Describes the characteristics where a settlement is located

Characteristics can include: - climate- water sources- topography- soil- vegetation- latitude- elevation

SITUATION: * Describes where a place is in relation to its surroundings (other towns, uplands, & rivers)

* Purpose- we can identify something from the land to direct people to their desired location

What is the difference between SITE and SITUATION?

Think about why places were located where they are?


  • Areas of unique characteristics

  • Links places together using any common parameter the geographer chooses

  • Can range in size from a single location to a global area

  • Three main types of regions

    • Formal

    • Functional

    • Vernacular

Regions vernacular or perceptual region formal region functional or nodal region
REGIONS A-F. :- Vernacular or Perceptual Region- Formal Region- Functional or Nodal Region

VERNACULAR REGION or Perceptual Region:

  • Defied loosely defined by people's perception

  • Ideas in our minds, based on accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that define an area of “sameness” or “connectedness.”EX. The South The Midwest“The Westside”

  • FUNCTIONAL REGION (or Nodal Region):

  • Region that has a defined node or center EX. Metropolitan area of Chicago


  • An area where everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics - Can be defined by governmental or administrative boundaries EX. United States, German speaking regions in Europe

  • - Physical regions fall under this category EX. The Rockies, the Great Lakes States

Formal region
Formal Region A-F.

The state of Iowa is an example of a formal region

Functional regions
Functional A-F. Regions

the areas of influence of various television stations are examples of functional regions.

Functional region
Functional Region A-F.

  • A region organized around a central node or focal point

  • Imagine how Chicago is connected to the land area around it. Chicago can be a formal region but its influence creates a functional region too.

Formal Region A-F. –IL is a formal region characterized by a government that passes laws, collect taxes…

Vernacular regions
Vernacular Regions A-F.

Fig. 1-12: A number of features are often used to define the South as a vernacular region, each of which identifies somewhat different boundaries.

Where is the westside
Where is the “WESTSIDE” A-F.

Foreman High School is here