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“FAIR PLAY EVERYDAY”. A Sportsmanship Training Program for High School Coaches. Do high school coaches need a sportsmanship program?. Most are doing OK Shake hands Treat Opponents OK BUT 1996 Head Butting Jersey Switching Baiting Officials Abuse: . The Number One Goal:.

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Presentation Transcript
fair play everyday


A Sportsmanship Training Program for

High School Coaches

do high school coaches need a sportsmanship program
Do high school coaches need a sportsmanship program?
  • Most are doing OK
  • Shake hands
  • Treat Opponents OK


  • 1996 Head Butting
  • Jersey Switching
  • Baiting Officials
  • Abuse:
the number one goal
The Number One Goal:

The NFHS and Most State Associations

To improve the level of sportsmanship and fair play in all high school athletic events.

do guidelines exist for coaches
Do guidelines exist for coaches?
  • National Federation of High School Associations (NFHS) publishes rules and sportsmanship programs
  • Many State Associations annually publish sportsmanship manuals
    • Some school districts have sportsmanship codes or guides
1997 state coaches association survey:

504 coaches surveyed

239 surveys returned

47% return rate


Only 27.2 % had received the Manual

Only 19.2 % had read the Manual

basic guidelines
Basic Guidelines

Questions of Right Choice

  • Is the action or behavior Honorable?
  • Is the action or behavior Responsible?
  • Does the action or behavior foster or improve Cooperation?
statement of the problem
Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a cognitive sportsmanship training program, based on the stated concepts of a high school activities association sportsmanship manual, on selected coaches as evidenced on a pencil and paper test instrument.

group design
Group 1

Group 2

Control Group

Fair Play Everyday video & SQ

NFHS Be A Sport video & SQ

No video or program

Sportsmanship Questionnaire only

Group Design
video development
Video Development
  • Limited to 15 minutes
  • Use possible real life dilemmas that occur in sport settings
  • Use training methods of presentation, reinforcement, repetition, saturation
  • Questions of Right Choice are presented in 9 different ways
          • watch video
data collection
Data Collection

School selection: Random selection

  • Representatives from 37 of 42 schools in the region
  • N = 420
    • Group 1 (Fair Play Everyday) = 171
    • Group 2 (NFHS Be A Sport) = 135
    • Control Group (No Treatment) = 114
data collection continued
Coaches by School Size

Size Coaches

A-1 = 181

A-2 = 109

A-3 = 60

A-4 = 67

Coaches by Gender

Gender Number

Male = 317

Female = 103

Data Collection (continued)
statistical hypothesis one
Statistical Hypothesis One

No difference exists by coaching treatment group on cognitive sportsmanship test scores

statistical hypothesis one continued
Statistical Hypothesis One (continued)
  • Group 1 M = 3.942a
  • Group 2 M = 3.652a
  • Control M = 3.338b
    • There is a significant difference
statistical hypothesis two
Statistical Hypothesis Two

No difference exists by coach gender on cognitive sportsmanship test scores.

statistical hypothesis two continued
Statistical Hypothesis Two(continued)


Male M = 3.565

Female M = 3.723

There is no significant difference

Female mean is slightly higher

statistical hypothesis two continued1
Statistical Hypothesis Two(continued)
  • Results are different from previous research
  • Goeb (1997): athletes tend to mirror coach’s level of moral reasoning (UND)
  • Fewer female coaches
  • Are female athletes becoming more affected by male coaches?
  • Difference in size of sample (317-103)?
statistical hypothesis three
Statistical Hypothesis Three

No difference exists by coach school size on cognitive sportsmanship test scores.

statistical hypothesis three continued
Statistical Hypothesis Three(continued)

School Size Mean SEM

A-1 3.267b .097

A-2 3.767a .147

A-3 3.826a .166

A-4 3.716a .150

There is a significant difference.

statistical hypothesis three continued1
Statistical Hypothesis Three(continued)
  • Larger schools scored much lower than the other school classifications.
  • Does school size affect how coaches view sportsmanship?
  • What is the best sized school for the best education?
    • Lee & Smith (1997) 600-900
    • Bracey (1998) Grad follow-up study
      • Sense of community and caring
statistical hypothesis three continued2
Statistical Hypothesis Three(continued)
  • Begley, et al (1999) in Newsweek

Large schools dampen enthusiasm for extracurricular activities

  • Is there a connection between school size and sportsmanship?
  • Can communities within larger schools be established to increase a sense of belonging?
implications recommendations
Implications & Recommendations
  • Major question: could a 30-minute cognitive training program improve coaches’ sportsmanship information and application of questions of right choice?
    • Both treatment groups scored higher than the control (significantly)
    • Controls scored about the same as the pilot coaches
    • Indicates some change occurred with TRT
implications recommendations1
Implications & Recommendations
  • Sportsmanship Training Program seemed to fill a void
    • Athletic Directors were given relief
    • Large District AD said “sportsmanship is something we all need to discuss and practice, but are reluctant to bring it up”
    • Program provided a beginning point for further discussions
    • Coaches were anxious to talk after the presentations
implications recommendations2
Implications & recommendations
  • Coaches were given questions that can be applied everyday
  • Athletic Directors can use Fair Play Everyday for clinics
  • Fair Play Everyday can be used for boosters/parents
implications recommendations3
Implications & Recommendations
  • Sportsmanship Training Program
    • Discussion of application to dilemmas by coaches
    • Coaches should have an open forum for discussion of possible solutions among schools (develop Sportsmanship Plan for the school)
implications recommendations4
Implications & Recommendations
  • Program would require release time for coaches
  • Sends a message that Sportsmanship is important
  • Combats limited time of coaches
implications recommendations5
Implications & Recommendations

The objective has been to improve Sportsmanship in high school sports. The finish of this part of the project...

implications recommendations6
Implications & Recommendations

… is the beginning of a greater challenge and crusade.

“The journey is better than the inn”



The Journey

continues. . .