Objectives • I can define key terms such as nutrition, nutrient, and cholesterol. • I can identify the essential nutrients. • To take an intrinsic look at the types of food we are consuming and properly categorize them. • I can identify which fats are good fats and which are bad fats. • I understand the obesity epidemic and can identify some of the major factors that have contributed to our current state.
Nutrition Definition: The science of food and how the body uses it in health and disease.
Nutrition • Diet is the sum of food you eat. It is an area of your life in which you have almost total control. • Using your knowledge and understanding of nutrition to create a healthy diet plan is a significant step toward wellness.
What is a NUTRIENT? • Brainstorm with your seat buddy what you think a nutrient is. Be prepared to share your definition.
Nutrients • Substances the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs.
What are the essential nutrients? • Proteins • Carbohydrates • Fats • Vitamins • Minerals • Water
Proteins • Proteins (4 calories/gram) • Function: Helps your body grow, repair itself, and fight disease; it can also provide energy if needed. Source: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk products, legumes & nuts
Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates (4 calories/gram) Function: Body’s main source of energy. Sources: Grains (breads and cereals), fruits, vegetables, milk
Are all carbs bad?Simply put, NO!!!!! • Simple Carbohydrates- mostly made of sugar, which releases too quickly, almost violently into our bodies, causing “sugar highs” and then “crashes.” They also tend to leave us feeling hungry, so we eat more. • Complex Carbohydrates-comprised of starch and fiber and are released gradually, providing a steady source of energy. They make us feel full and satisfied and are easily broken down to release energy.
Examples of types of carbohydrates • Simple: • White flour • White pasta • White rice • White sugar • Complex: • Potatoes • Yams • Sweet Potatoes • Barley • Corn • Brown Rice • Beans • Hummus • Lentils • Quinoa • Pasta made from brown rice, whole wheat, or veggies
Fats • Fats (9 Calories/Gram) • Function: • Supply energy; insulate, support and cushion organs Source: Animal foods, grains, nuts, seeds, fish, vegetables
Vitamins • Vitamins • Function: • Help regulate body processes • Source: • Fruits, vegetables and grains also found in meat and dairy products
Minerals Minerals Function: Help regulate body functions while others become part of body tissues. Source: Found in most food groups Examples: Calcium, Iron and Zinc
Water • Water • Function: • Makes up 50-70% of body weight; transports chemicals; regulates temperature; removes waste products Source: Fruits, vegetables and liquids
Cholesterol • Definition • A waxy substance found in every cell of humans and animals
Two Types of cholesterol • LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) = BAD • Blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in the accumulation of fatty deposits on artery walls • HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein)= GOOD • Blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease
Concerns if cholesterol is too high? • High levels of LDL increase the risk for heart disease and stroke, even in young people. • http://abcnews.go.com/Health/video/kids-cholesterol-14950820
How can we avoid having high cholesterol? • Eating a healthy diet, filled with lean meats, fruits, vegetables and whole grains. • Limiting the amount of junk food (bad fats) in our diet. • Being physically active. • Making “better” food choices.
Obesity • Obesity is defined as having an excessive amount of body fat. • It is measured via Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference. • More than 1/3 of U.S. adults are obese (BMI>30) • It is projected that by 2030, more than half of Americans will be obese. Take notes during video… http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=h0zD1gj0pXk
Conclusion • You should know what you are consuming in your diet. • What are the essential nutrients? • What are some factors that have contributed to our obesity epidemic?
Homework 1). It is IMPERATIVE you complete this assignment, as it will be used next class. • You are to keep a 1 day food log consisting of EVERYTHING you eat that day. • You must try to be accurate in your serving sizes and portions. • Knowing the brand names of the food will be helpful as well, so be very SPECIFIC. • Be honest in what you eat.
Objectives • I understand the basic principles of MyPlate. • I can apply what I have learned from my food journal to my daily eating habits. • I have gained the knowledge necessary to make better nutritional choices. • I am able to identify common eating disorders.
Now, let’s apply what you learned from last class • Using the information you obtained from the previous class, we are now going to calculate what YOUR nutritional needs are.
Determining Total calorie needs • Simple math • MALES: Take 1.0 X your weight (in lbs.) X 24 (hours in a day) X your activity factor (which is 0.64-= low, 0.68= moderate, 0.73= high) = TOTAL CALORIE NEEDS • FEMALES: Take 0.9 X your weight (in lbs.) X 24 (hours in a day) X your activity factor (which is 0.64-= low, 0.68= moderate, 0.73= high) = TOTAL CALORIE NEEDS
What about Carbohydrates? • Take YOUR TOTAL CALORIE NEEDS and X by 0.6. • Then, take that number and divide it by 4. • THAT is the total number of GRAMS of carbohydrates you should be consuming in ONE DAY! • Sample: • 2,000 X 0.6= 1200 CHO/KCAL • 1200 / 4= 300 Grams of Carbohydrates
How about protein? • If your goal is to BUILD MUSCLE MASS, use this equation: • Total calories per day X 0.16= Protein Kcal • If your goal is to MAINTAIN MASS, use this equation: • Total calories per day X 0.12= Protein Kcal FINALLY, take that calculated number and divide by 4= The Amount of Protein Grams you should consume in ONE DAY.
And fat… • Take the total amount of calories and X by 0.25. • Next, take that number and divide by 9= The total Grams of Fat you should consume in ONE DAY.
Some things to consider… • Recommendations will vary based upon individual needs. • These are only estimates, but a good way to gage how much you should be consuming.
Go back to your spreadsheet… • How did you do? • How many of you were UNDER your recommended daily caloric intake? OVER? • What have you learned? • How can you apply what you learned?
History of USDA’s Food Guidance Food for Young Children 1992 1916 1940s 1970s 2005 2010 1950s-1960s
Basic Principles of MyPlate • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SEFmSk08LIE&feature=player_detailpage • Turn to your seat buddy and sum up exactly what the philosophy is behind MyPlate.
Some of the basic principles… • Enjoy your food, but eat less. • Avoid oversized portions. • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables. • Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk. • Make at least half your grains whole grains. • Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals—and choose foods with lower numbers. • Drink water instead of sugary drinks.
Physical Activity MyPlate recommends exercising- and it doesn’t have to be a 30 minute run. Anything that requires movement and exertion is considered physical activity.
Let’s think, explore, pair, and share • Using your Eat This, Not That, I want you to visit 10 different people and see what they found from completing Eat This, Not That. • After you have sat down and talked to ten different people (put tally marks on your paper to keep track), find one person who you feel comfortable working with and as a pair, decide on a breakfast, a lunch, a dinner, and a dessert that you would be willing to share with the class that is within your nutritional needs budget.
Let’s revisit obesity • We have come to the conclusion that we, as a nation, have growing waistlines. • Let’s review: • What are some factors that have contributed to this crisis?
1985-2010- The big blowup http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IEbLZT48bo
Fact • In 2010, 68.8% of American Adults were overweight or obese. • In 2010, 18% of adolescents age 12-19 were considered obese, up from 5% in 1980. • In 2010, 18% of children age 6-11 were considered obese, up from 7% in 1980. • What kind of price does this pay on our country?
Concerns • •Children and adolescents who are obese are likely to be obese as adults and are therefore more at risk for adult health problems such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, several types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. • •Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk for many types of cancer, including cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, thyroid, ovary, cervix, and prostate, as well as multiple myeloma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. • Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk factors that raises your risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke.
Time for a discussion… • Food consumed at school can represent as much as 50% of children’s daily caloric intake on school days. • What do you eat at school? • Let’s talk about what you pack or buy for lunch?
Another topic of discussion… • On average, children are exposed to as many as 7,600 commercials for food products per year. And 98% of what they’re seeing advertises foods high in fat, sugar and/ or salt. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk_hkdGf1tc • What do they all have in common?
A wise woman once told me the following in regards to nutrition- let’s go through and discuss… • If it came from a plant, eat it. If it was made in a plant, don’t. • Don’t eat anything your grandmother wouldn’t recognize as food. • Eat foods that will eventually rot and die. • Don’t fuel your body from the same place you fuel your car.
Avoid food products containing ingredients that a 3rd grader can’t pronounce. Avoid food products with “lite,” “lowfat,” or “nonfat” in their name. Don’t drink your sweet. Drink water, from the tap.
Don’t eat breakfast cereals that change the color of your milk. Do all of your eating at a table. Spend as much time eating and enjoying food as it took to prepare it. Treat treats as treats. Break the rules, once in a while.
Food Addiction • Read the article. • In your notes, choose 6-8 facts or statements that stood out in the article and jot them down. • We will discuss as a class.
Eating Disorders • Most common: • Anorexia Nervosa • Bulimia Nervosa • EDNOS (Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified) • What do you know about these disorders?
What you should know about eating disorders: • Anorexia- restricting calories • Bulimia- bingeing (eating a lot) and then purging (making oneself vomit to rid the body of the calories) • EDNOS- This category is frequently used for people who meet some, but not all, of the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder (eating an usual amount of food).
NUTRITION conclusion for today… It is about the CHOICES you make! Keeping yourself educated and informed will help you live a healthy life! It is your responsibility to make it a priority!