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Cannabis indica. Active principle. Cannabinol Cannabidiol Tetrahydrocannabinol isomer. Fatal dose :- Bhang:-10 gm/ Ganja:- 8 gm/ Charas:- 2 gm/ Fatal period :- several days. Onset of action :-

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active principle
Active principle
  • Cannabinol
  • Cannabidiol
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol isomer

Fatal dose:-

Bhang:-10 gm/

Ganja:- 8 gm/

Charas:- 2 gm/

Fatal period:- several days.

Onset of action:-

Smoking:- Soon after smoking and last for 1-2 hours.

Swallowing:- 30 minute after swallowing & last for 2-3 hrs.

forms of cannabis indica
Forms of cannabis indica:-
  • Bhang (Patti):-It is prepared from dried leaves and fruits. It is mildest form and contain 15 % of active principle. Fresh bhang is highly intoxicating and narcotics.
  • Majoon:- it is sweet prepared from bhang.

Ganja/ marijuana:-it is prepared from flowering top of female plant. It has a rusty green color and characteristic odour. It contains 15-25 % of active principle. It is mixed with little tobacco and smoke in pipe.

  • Charas /hashish:-it is the resin exudates from the leaves and stems of plant. It is dark green or brown in color. It contains25-40 % of active principle.
absorption fate and excretion
Absorption, fate and excretion:
  • If taken by mouth, they are well absorbed through the g.i.tract and if taken as smoke it is well absorbed through the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract.
  • Metabolized in the liver.
  • Metabolic products are excreted through urine and faeces.
effects of cannabis
Effects of cannabis
  • effects of cannabis are caused by cannabinoids(tetrahydrocannabinol,THC)
  • Has both psychological andphysiologicaleffects on the human body.
  • Biochemical Effects
  • psychoactive substances in cannabis are cannabinoids (ie,THC).
  • Cannabidiol (CBD), an isomer of THC
  • CBD regulate the strength of the psychoactive agent THC.
  • CBD is also believed to regulate the body’s metabolism of THC by inactivating cytochrome P450 (enzymes that metabolize drugs).
  • CBD treatment was associated with a substantial increase in brain concentrations of THC and its major metabolites, because it decreased the rate of clearance of THC from the body.
  • THC is converted rapidly to 11-hydroxy-THC, which is also pharmacologically active, so the drug effect outlasts measurable THC levels in blood.
  • two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).
  • CB1 receptor found in the brain and mediates psychological effects of THC and CB2 receptor is most abundantly found on cells of the immune system (immunomodulators).
sign and symptoms
Sign and symptoms

Small dose :-

increased heart rate, dry mouth, reddening of the eyes (congestion of the conjunctival blood vessels), a reduction in intra-ocular pressure, muscle relaxation, and a sensation of cold or hot hands and feet, sense of hunger (particularly for sweets)

Moderate dose:-

Impaired immediate memory, disturb thought patterns, lapses of attention.

High dose:-

Distortion of body image, loss of personal identity with mental disturbance and hallucination with sensory disturbance.

stage of intoxication
Stage of intoxication:-
  • There is giddiness and ataxia.
  • Speech become confused.
  • Tingling and numbness of the skin and drowsiness.
  • The patient passes into deep sleep and wakes with lassitude and impaired mental function.
  • Death may rarely occur from respiratory failure.


  • Stomach wash.
  • 100ml. of 50% glucose, 2 mg naloxone and 100mg. Thiamine i.v.
  • 5-10 mg diazepam, if patient is aggressive.
  • Anti anxiety and antipsychotic drugs can be given if necessary.
  • Oxygen inhalation and artificial respiration.
  • Antibiotics for lung infection.
  • Symptomatic management.
ganja psychosis
Ganja psychosis
  • Prolonged over use of any form of cannabis indica leads to a condition known as Ganja psychosis.
  • Features are:-
  • Marked congestion of conjunctiva.
  • Anorexia, lethargy, weakness.
  • Tremor
  • Impotence
  • Insanity.