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Welcome to Introduction to Teaching English as a Foreign Language

Welcome to Introduction to Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Curr 223 Lecturer : Hanoof Alkasham. Course Description.

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Welcome to Introduction to Teaching English as a Foreign Language

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  1. Welcome toIntroduction to Teaching English as a Foreign Language Curr 223 Lecturer : HanoofAlkasham

  2. Course Description • This course is an introduction to the teaching of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) intended for those who contemplate a career in TESOL. Through a program of lectures, readings, discussions, and practical teaching exercises we will explore the educational contexts in which English is taught and learned, some methods and materials that teachers have used to teach it, and the links between what teachers and learners do in class and what applied linguistic research tells us about how second languages are learned.

  3. Course goals Students enrolled in this course will be able to: 1. Recognize English as Foreign language Programs. 2. Comprehend research based instructional methods to teach speakers of other languages. 3. Identify the characteristics of theories on language acquisition and understand the process and differences between First and Foreign language acquisition. 4. Understand cognitive and social factors that affect the English language learning process to adapt content of the curriculum and meet the learning needs of students.

  4. Required Textbooks • Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or Foreign Language (3rd Edition). Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

  5. Class Policies 1. Attendance, punctuality, and class participation are mandatory. 2. All cell-phones must be turned off during the entire class session. 3. Students who miss one meeting will be expected to complete the assignments assigned for that session. 4. All assignments must be handed in accordance to the assigned due date. Work submitted one session or more after the due date will receive a zero. Late work must be accompanied by an explanation for its lateness in order to receive a grade on the assignment. 5. Students are required to prepare for each class by reading the assigned chapters and materials handed by the instructor. 6. Each written assignment will be graded approximately 80% on content and 20% on mechanics. Also, all citations should use the APA format.

  6. Authorship • Many of your assignments for this course involve integrating information from published sources into your own writing. This means that you need to be careful not to plagiarize: "to steal or pass off (the ideas and words of another) as one's own" or to "present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source" (Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th edition, p. 888).

  7. Assignments • Participation 5 Marks • Assignments 10 marks • Lesson Plan and Presentation 10 marks • 2 Quizzes 10 marks • Midterm Exam 15 marks • Final Exam 50 marks

  8. Contact information • Course name: Introduction to Teaching English as a Foreign Language • Course Number: CURR 223 • Lecturer HanoofAlkasham • Email; Hbalkasham@pnu.edu.sa • Website: www.schoolrack.com/H_Alkasham/ • Twitter account: @HAlkasham • Office number: 2.236 • Office Hours: Sunday from 8:00 to 12:00.

  9. Tentative Schedule

  10. Tentative Schedule

  11. Lecture 1

  12. English Teaching Methodology What you should know about English teaching?

  13. Reference Books • Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching, Diane Larsen-Freeman, Oxford University Press. • Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, H. Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents. • Teaching by Principles, H. Douglas Brown, Prentice Hall Regents. • Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Jack C. Richards & Theordore S. Rodgers, Cambridge University Press. • An introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research. Diane Larsen-Freeman & Michael H. Long. • The Practice of English Language Teaching, Jeremy Harmer, Longman, Ltd. • Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. • Celce-Murcia, M. H&H • Second Language Teaching & Learning. David Nunan. (1995). H& H.

  14. I. A Framework of TESOL • English language teaching and learning: language, education, psychology • Theoretical Underpinning: First language education, second language acquisition • Research methodology • Linguistics

  15. II. English as a global language: cultural imperialism or intermixing? • the place of English: as a lingua franca • the number of English speakers: 600-700 million speak English; in Asia alone, 100 million children are learning English. • How English got there: a colonial history, economics (globalization), travel, information exchange (academic discourse; the Internet), popular culture (music, movies) • Varieties of English: inner circle, outer circle, and expanding circle; for specific or general purposes

  16. III. Reasons of learning a 2nd/foreign language and what goals of it • Academic: to pursue degrees or certificates (* only a small portion in fact) • Non-academic: (a) to survive in Target Language community e.g. talking to neighbors, helping children at school, or carrying out daily functions effectively (b)English for specific purpose (ESP): to learning the lg as to apply in work (c) Culture: to know about the target community • Miscellaneous: to learn for pleasure, for integrating into a culture or to be forced to To understand students’ need and motivation of learning a language is crucial for successful learning and teaching.

  17. IV. Research findings on SLA (a) Adults and adolescents can acquire a L2 (b) The learners create a systematic IL( interlanguage) with the same systematic errors as the child learning the L1 (c) There are predictable sequences in acquisition (d) Practice doesn’t make perfect (e) Knowing a linguistic rule doesn’t mean knowing how to use it (f) Isolated explicit error correction is usually ineffective (g) More adult learners fossilize (h) One cannot achieve native-like command of a L2 in one hour a day (i) The learners’ task is enormous since language is complex A meaningful context is paramount.

  18. Advantages children benefit from learning a foreign language: • Children’s greater potential for developing accurate pronunciation, accent and fluency before puberty • Children’s favorable attitude towards a language and its culture, either their mother tongue or a second language. • Children’s less mental barriers of learning than adults • Children’s learning two languages simultaneously without suffering from inter-lingual interference • Listening along with speaking, a preliminary and preferable role in the natural order of language acquisition for children

  19. But “learners of different ages have different characteristics” is more preferable than the critical hypothesis. Besides, accurate pronunciation is not the most important goal of language learning but a necessary or desirable goal. There are also other factors that determine the effectiveness of one’s language learning such as teacher’s language competence, the learning environment and so on.

  20. IV. What is a good English learner/teacher? A Good learner of English is • Willing to experiment • Willing to listen • Willing to ask questions • Willing to think about how to learn • Independent/responsible

  21. What is a good English teacher? According to Brown (2001), a good language teacher is characterized by i) technical knowledge—understanding linguistics; grasping basic principles of language learning and teaching; language proficiencies in speaking, reading, writing and listening; knowledge about language learning process through one’s own experience; understanding the relationship between culture and language and knowledge of latest development of language teaching and learning.

  22. ii) Pedagogical skills---well-informed language teaching approaches; teaching techniques; ability in lesson plan design and other classroom behavior management skills. iii) Interpersonal skills. iv) Personal qualities.

  23. VI. Important terms in TESOL • TESOL, TEFL, TESL • TESOL—an acronym for teaching English to speakers of other languages, used, particularly in the USA, to describe the teaching of English in situations where it is either a second language or a foreign language. • TEFL—an acronym for teaching English as a foreign language, used to describe the teaching of English in situations where it is a foreign language. • TESL—an acronym for teaching English as a second language, used either to describe the teaching of English in situations where it is a second language or to refer to any situation where English is taught to speakers of other languages.

  24. ESL & EFL ESL—an abbreviation for English as a second language such as in Singapore EFL— an abbreviation for English as a foreign language such as Japan

  25. Deductive learning of grammar— is an approach to language learning in which learners are taught rules and given specific information about a language. They then apply these rules when they use the language. For example, in the grammar translation method, specific grammar rules are given to learners and practice subsequently follows to familiarize students with the rule. The features of it are time-saving and suitable for adult learners who can afford abstract thinking. Besides it is widely used in EFL contexts where exposure to the target language is limited and the length of instruction time is short. (e.g. GTM, adult learners, FI/analytic learners, EFL contexts)

  26. Inductive learning— is an approach to language learning in which learners are not taught grammatical or other types of rules directly but are left to discover or induce rules from their experience of using the language. Language teaching methods which emphasize use of the language rather than presentation of information about the language include the direct method, the communicative approach and counseling learning. The features of it are time-consuming and applicable to young learners in natural settings such as ESL contexts.

  27. Performance and competence Performance-- a person’s actual use of language; how a person uses his knowledge of a language in producing and understanding sentences. Competence-- a person’s knowledge of a language People may have the competence to produce a long sentence but when they actually try to use this knowledge, there are reasons why they restrict it. For example, they may run out of breath or their listeners forget what has been said if the sentence is too long. Due to performance factors such as fatigue, lack of attention, nervousness or excitement, their actual use of language may not reflect their competence. The errors they make are described as examples of performance.

  28. the Acquisition-learning hypothesis by Stephen Krashen-(1941-) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Krashen • Acquisition vs. learning Acquisition--the processes by which people naturally develop proficiency in a language Learning-- the processes by which people formally develop language proficiency.

  29. bottom-up processing vs. top-down processing Top-down processing—a way in which humans analyze and process language as part of the process of comprehension and learning by making use of previous knowledge (higher-level knowledge) in analyzing and processing information which is received such as one’s expectations, experience, schemata in reading the text. Bottom-up processing— a way making use principally of information which is already present in the data (words, sentences, etc.) such as understanding a text mainly by analyzing the words and sentences in the text itself.

  30. Teacher-centered vs. learner-centered teaching Teacher-centered (fronted) teaching— a teaching style in which instruction is closely managed and controlled by the teacher, where students often respond in unison to teacher questions, and where whole-class instruction is preferred to other methods. Learner-centered teaching— methods of teaching which emphasizes the active role of students in learning, tries to give learners more control over what and how they learn and encourages learners to take more responsibility for their own learning. It is encouraged by many current teaching approaches.

  31. Target language vs. native language Target language—the language which a person is learning Native language— a first language or mother tongue/motherese which is acquired first.

  32. Form vs. function • Form— the physical characteristics of a thing-> in language use, a linguistic form is like the imperative • Function— a linguistic form can perform a variety of different functions: Come here for a drink-> invitation Watch out-> warning Turn left at the corner-> direction Pass the salt-> request

  33. CALL-- computer-assisted language learning • CAI: computer-assisted instruction • 3 P- a traditional classroom teaching procedure derived from the Situational Approach of presentation, practice and production

  34. Lecture 2

  35. Content-base instruction and immersion models For second and foreign language teaching

  36. objectives • Define the word content in relation to language learning. • Identify the factors that define the different content-based models. • Recognize the theories behind content-based instruction. • Recognize the five different models of content-based instruction. • Identify the features of each model. • Recognize the different strategies of content-based teachers and content-based instructors.

  37. What is content? Traditionally Content is defined as…. the communicative purposes for which speakers use the second/foreign language. There are some approaches that have different notions of what is content. e.g. -The Grammar-translation method -The Audiolingual method -The Communicative Approach -Natural Approach (refer to text book p. 303) The Recent definition for Content is… The Use of subject matter for Second/foreign language teaching purposes. • Look up the meaning of subject matter. (p.303)

  38. -Content based instruction can be found in Foreign and second language settings. -Content based instruction can be implemented at the elementary level or secondary and post secondary level. Factors that define different content-based instruction models: (refer to p.303)

  39. Rationale Theoretical foundation of Content based instruction: • Krashen’s comprehensible input (p.304) i+1 What is comprehensible input? • Studies from Canadian Immersion programs (p.304) • What are the findings of these studies? • Sociocultural Approaches (Vygotsky notions) (p.304) • What are Vygotsky’s notions? • Cognitive psychology (Anderson’s theory)(p.304) • Mention Anderson's theory?

  40. Models of Content-based instruction Models of Content-based instruction can be distinguished by different means: • Setting • Instructional level • The degree of emphasis on language and content (refer to p.304)

  41. Models of Content-based instruction • There are five models of content-based instruction • Immersion Model • Content-Enriched Foreign language in the Elementary school • Theme-based Model • Sheltered Model • Adjunct Model

  42. Content-based models

  43. Immersion Model • It was established in Canada and now can be found all over North America. • In the total Immersion Model, students receive the majority of their schooling through the Second/Foreign language. • By the end of the elementary school, the students become functional bilingual. • Second/foreign language is generally used for most of the academic instruction beginning in kindergarten or grade 1. • Most Immersion programs share the same objectives. (p.306) • What are these objectives?

  44. Content-Enriched Foreign language in the Elementary School • During the 1950s and 1960s, foreign language in the elementary school (FLES) programs were widespread across the US. • “Traveling teachers” meet with students for 20 to 30 minutes, several times per week for foreign language instruction. • These classes focus on formal study of the foreign language. • These programs were criticized for their failure in producing functional users of the foreign language.

  45. Content-Enriched Foreign language in the Elementary School • “content-enriched” FLES offers an updated approach to traditional FLES, in which subjects from the standard school curriculum are selected for introduction or reinforcement in the FLES class. • Teachers find points of coincidence with the standard school curriculum which can be paired with the objectives of the foreign language curriculum. • Give an example from the text that explains content-enriched FLES? (refer to p.306) • What are the advantages that content-enriched FLES have for language learning?

  46. Theme-based model • The theme-based model is a type of content-based instruction in which selected topics or themes provide the content from which teachers extract language learning activities. • This model is widely implemented in language institutions at the college or university level. • The teacher’s goal is to select topics suitable for academic English skills. • Find an example in the text on a topic that is taught through the theme-based model? (p.307)

  47. Theme-based model • Content is incorporated into the theme-base model through different means. • What are these means? (refer to p.307) • In 1997, the first systematic framework for theme-based instruction was offered. It was called the Six T’s Approach. • What are these six T’s? (p.307)

  48. Sheltered model • Sheltered courses currently exist in a variety of secondary and postsecondary settings. • Sheltered models mean the separation of second/foreign language students from native speakers of the target language for the purpose of content instruction. • Refer to the examples of the sheltered model on p.307.

  49. Adjunct model • The adjunct model is a content-based approach in which students are concurrently enrolled in a language class and a content course. • A key feature of the adjunct models the coordination of objectives and assignments between language and content instructors. • The language class becomes content based in the sense that the students’ needs in the content class dictate the activities of the language class. • For examples, refer to p. 308-309

  50. Strategies for content-based instruction • Strategies for language teachers • The focus of language learning is the mastery of the four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking). • In addition, language learning in content-based instruction is for academic success. • For example, students must develop strategies for note taking, summarizing reading material, and developing study guides. • There are many strategies to teach the four skills. (you will cover it in curr 423)

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