training and development n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 117

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 156 Views
  • Uploaded on

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. “FOR HIGHER PERFORMANCE”. GROWING EMPHASIS TO TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT. Rapid technological development. Managers often made to handle areas of responsibility different from specialisation. In the era of LPG there need to be change in management style.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT' - gamba


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
training and development

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

“FOR HIGHER PERFORMANCE”

slide2

GROWING EMPHASIS TO TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

  • Rapid technological development.
  • Managers often made to handle areas of responsibility different from specialisation.
  • In the era of LPG there need to be change in management style.
  • The entry of backward and under privileged leads to special training.
  • If right candidate is not selected.
facts about training and development
Facts About Training and Development
  • In the past training was for people who could be speared, by people who also could be speared.
  • At present it has to be need based.
  • Training is a continuous life long process.
  • Training must be to achieve certain objectives.
  • Training could be for learning hard skills or soft skill or both.
slide4

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT

Management Development is an activity designed to improve the performance of existing managers, provide supply of managers to meet the need of organisations in future.

slide5

OBJECTIVES OF MDP

  • To improve the job performance of managers currently in post
  • Provide adequate cover in the event of unexpected short temp changes such as death, transfer, resignation or any other unanticipated development
  • To raise the general level of management thinking and understanding in all branches and at all levels is the organisation
  • Provide supply of managerial talent which cancop up with environmental changes etc.
slide6

To overhaul the management machinery.

  • To improve the performance of managers.
  • To provide a specialist the insight into other departments.
  • Prepare potential candidates for senior position.
  • Morale boosting of managers.
  • To keep executives abreast of changes and developments.
  • To create management succession.
  • To improve thought process and analytical abilities.
  • To broaden the out look of executives.
  • To stimulate creative thinking.
slide7

TO ACHIEVE THESE OBJECTIVES

  • Commitment and understanding by top management
  • Cooperation in imparting knowledge and skill from senior and middle management
  • An eagerness to learn at all levels
  • This is what Japanese do, life long commitment for learning by all.
  • Top managers in India consider beyond training
  • Many Japanese CEOs sit behind workers to learn intricacies of welding
slide8

EACH MANAGEMENT JOB CALLS FOR

  • Background knowledge
  • Knowledge of application
  • Tool subject such as statistics or maths
  • Management techniques such as sales analysis or CPM
  • Management skills – Human relation and conceptual skills
essential ingredients of mdp
Essential Ingredients of MDP
  • Analysis of Organisational present and development needs.
  • Appraisal of present management talent.
  • Inventory of management manpower.
  • Planning of individual development programme.
  • Establishment of development programme.
  • Evaluation of the programme.
slide10

INSTRUMENTS OF DEVELOPMENT

  • Performance appraisal.
  • Performance review discussion and counseling.
  • Job rotation.
  • Organisation development activities.
  • Career development plan.
  • Training.
  • Periodic discussion and meetings.
slide11

PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT

  • All development is self development.
  • Development is highly individual as no two persons are same.
  • Individuals also develop due to his day to day experience on the job.
  • It is a continuous process.
  • It will be good for a trainer to remember these basic principles of development.
slide13

PRINCIPLE OF LEARNING – THE BASIC QUESTION

  • How do people learn?
  • Why to people learn?
  • Why do some people learn faster than others?
  • How could learning become more effective?
  • These Qs keep bothering a trainer and answer is not very simple as human brain is very complex.
slide14

WHAT IS LEARNING?

It is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior, which occurs as a result of practice or experience. Not always good, it could be addition of information. It could be acquisition of new skills. It could also be change in behaviour.

slide15

TYPES OF LEARNING

  • Classical conditioning (pairing of conditional and unconditional stimulus).
  • Operant conditioning (In this reinforce is used).
  • Cognitive learning(A change in the way information is processed as a result of experience a person has had.
slide16

IMPROVING LEARNING

  • Level of motivation.
  • Feed back on learner’s effectiveness.
  • Participation by learners (more so for skills like cycling, swimming).
  • Successive approximation.
  • Learning and efforts.
  • Imitation and modeling
  • Meaningfulness of material
  • Transfer of training
  • Learning to learn
  • Theoretical vs practical
  • Profile of the group
  • Setting objective
slide17

TRAINING LOOP

Identification of Training Needs

Develop Training Objectives

Design Training Curriculum

Measure Training Results

Design Training Methods

ConductTrainingProgramme

Design Training Evaluation methodology

slide18

IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEED

  • Training or training need = Skills required to perform given task efficiently--skills one posses at that movement.
  • Hence 1st step is to identify training needs
  • The success of Training and development programme will depend on ITN
indicators of training needs
INDICATORS OF TRAINING NEEDS
  • Complaints from staff
  • Complaints from customers/clients
  • Poor quality of work
  • Frequent errors
  • Inadequate recruiting process
  • Large staff turnover
  • Performance dates not met
  • Conflict among staff
  • New equipment/ systems
other issues that may assist in tna
OTHER ISSUES THAT MAY ASSIST IN TNA
  • Accident report
  • Company plan, policy or projection
  • Exit interviews/ Questionnaire
  • Error rate
  • Complaints
  • Absenteeism
  • Quality control report
  • Performance appraisals
  • Observation, testing
  • Job analysis
slide21

DATA NEEDED FOR TNI

  • Job description of individual.
  • Job performance review.
  • Potential of individual to grow.
  • Managerial ability and traits required.
slide22

WHO TO FIND TNI ?

  • Training manager.
  • Line managers.
  • If TNI is wrong no use of conducting programme.
  • Line manager must review the performance with correct intention of finding TNI. Hence ask.
  • Do I know the present Job descriptionof my subordinates?
  • Do I know the problems faced by my subordinates in performing their job and how they deal with it?
slide23

Do I know how they deal with colleagues and subordinates?

  • Do I know his potential in relation to organisation needs?
  • Do I know his strength and weakness in relation to job?

If answer to above data is affirmative he should be in position to provide reliable data for TNI.

slide24

The need identification should be in consultation with the subordinate

  • It should be examined if training is best solution
  • Often managers are nominated because they can be spared
  • Hence OSDs are detailed and not the person actually need training
steps a consultant takes for tna
STEPS A CONSULTANT TAKES FOR TNA
  • Become familiar with the structure of the co
  • Become familiar with the finances of the co
  • Become familiar with the staff of the co
  • Design a suitable questionnaire to establish train needs
  • Follow up questionnaire with personal interview
  • Establish whether the needs shown were training needs or management needs.
  • Design Training to fill the gaps indicated
  • Conduct training
  • Evaluate training by observing behavioural and attitudinal changes
slide26

MAJOR SOURCES FOR IDENTIFYING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS

  • Performance appraisal
  • Identify expectation and actual performance
  • Areas relating to knowledge, skills attitude and behaviour on job which need change can be specifically assessed
  • It comes from employee himself or during discussion between him and superior
slide29

CAREER PLAN (Job Enrichment / Enlargement, Transfer, Promotional)

  • Based on career plan…….
  • Training manager, employees and his superior meet and discuss the gap between his skills & requirement of future job.
  • This could be for present and future job.
slide30

SYSTEM INTRODUCITON

  • New systems and procedure, when introduced, call for intervention from T&D function.
  • The level of skills of employees are assessed for new system and accordingly training need identified.
  • Some will need more training than others.
slide31

THE LACUNA

  • Many a times the programmes are designed on the basis of what can be given by training department then really needed.
  • If training managers has the background of marketing he will be more inclined to that field.
  • Hence organisations must have some body who can organise any type of training.
slide32

SOLUTION

  • Constitute corporate training committee
  • Headed by VP HR
  • Most of the senior line managers as members to ensure commitment to training

Example I (page 18 – 21)

Example II (page 22- 25)

slide33

QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD

  • When we need to identify for a large group
  • Questionnaire are generally sent to employees and his immediate superior to make it more objective
  • Separate Questionnaire are made for different functions
  • Each Questionnaire has sub section for example

Marketing

    • Questions on general marketing
    • Questions on demand for casting
    • Distribution
    • Warehousing
    • Market survey
    • Advertising / publicity / PR
    • Sales training
    • International marketing etc

(Note:- Design questionnaires for marketing / financial / operations)

slide34

INTERVIEW METHOD

  • Normally used in the absence of appraisal system
  • A person from training department or outsider can be assigned this job
  • Normally done when employee strength is small
  • Interviewer must study job description of each manager, systems and procedure
  • Question must be oriented to probe the weaknesses and strengths
  • Distinguish between immediate needs and development needs
  • The process must commence with detailed discussion with dept Mgr
slide35

CLASSIFYING EMPLOYEES

A model by Dr George Odiorne

High

Work Horses

Starts 15%

Job Performance

Problem Children

Deadwoods 20%

Low

Potential

High

Who should be trained more out of this four group & why?

slide36

Training Methods

  • There are range of training methods
  • Each has its advantages and disadvantages
  • Difference mainly lies in terms of trainees involvement in the process of learning
  • Can be represented from least to maximum
  • Choice of method is a matter of experience and competence of the instructor
  • It also depend on levels of participants
slide37

Types of Training Methods

  • Training in the field, on the job
    • Apprenticeship
    • In plant training
    • Craftsmanship
  • Simulating real situation
    • Role playing
    • Business games
    • In basket training
slide38

Laboratory training

    • Sensitivity training – T group, L group
    • Transactional analysis
  • Sampling real life
    • Incidents,
    • case methods/ case studies
slide39

Individualised training or counseling

    • Practicing specific skills
    • Reading and training or counseling
    • Postal tuition
    • Programmed instruction
  • Discussion methods
    • Syndicate method
    • Seminar, conferences, colloquium symposium

Lecture methods

slide40

Learning Effectiveness

By

Hearing

Seeing

Hearing and Seeing

Doing or Experiencing

Touching

Heaving a feel

Soiling the hands

Hearing/seeing/doing/ experiencing

Sensory Organs

Ears , mouth

Eyes

Ears/mouth/eyes

Body

% Effectiveness

30%

40%

50%

60%

80%

slide41

Principal of learning and choice of methods

1. Motivation

High

Medium

Low

Methods

Business games, project assignment

Lecture, group discussion case study

Reading assignment

Methods

Case study, business game, project assignment, role playing

Group discussion, reading assignment

Lecture

Active involvement

High

Medium

Low

slide42

Individual approach

High

Medium

Low

Methods

Project assignment

Group discussion, case studies, business games, role playing reading assignment

Lecture

Sequencing & structuring

High

Medium

Low

Methods

Project assignment

Group discussion, case studies, business games, role playing reading assignment

Group discussion and role playing

slide43

Feed back

High

Medium

Low

Methods

Business games, role playing Project assignment

Group discussion case study

Lecture, reading assignment

Feed back on

Soundness of decision behavioural pattern practical usefulness of learning

Knowledge analytical ability

--

Transfer

High

Medium

Low

Methods

Project assignment

Group discussion, case studies, business games, role playing reading assignment

Lecture, reading assignment

slide44

Lecture Method

  • One of the oldest most basic training method
  • Mode one teacher active, student passive, mode two both active and mode threes teacher passive students active
  • Mode one is for lecture, other two modes for other methods
slide45

Planning lecture

  • Who is your audience
  • What is the purpose of talk
  • What is the time available
  • What is the subject matter
slide46

Contents of the lecture

  • Introduction
  • The body of the talk
    • Develop logical steps
    • Illustrate with examples, visual aids
    • Start with simple concepts and progressively move towards difficult ones
  • Conclusion
    • Tell what you are going to tell
    • Tell it
    • Then tell what you have told
slide47

Delivering lecture

  • Setting the scene – Arrive in time to check every thing is in place
  • Posture – Mainly standing and maintaining eye contact
  • Appearance – Nothing out of harmany
  • Manners – Courteous and since and enthusiastic
  • Gestures
  • Vocabulary
slide48

Advantages

  • Good for passing information which are not with the students
  • Large no in limited time can be covered
  • Good for basic theoretical knowledge
  • When gist of research work is to be communicated
slide49

Disadvantages

  • Spirit of inquiry curbed
  • The relationship between teacher and student is 1:1
  • Not good with experienced people
  • It produces staleness and monotony
  • Teachers are not aware of thoughtm process of students
  • Flexibility with reference to participants reaction is low
  • Farthest from reality
slide50

Improving effectiveness of lecture method

  • Make presentation for 20 to 25 minutes, then participate for 10 to 15 minutes through discussion, question answer session and an exercise.
  • Divide your period into two parts of 1 ½ hrs each 1st part for concepts 2nd part for case study on same.

Annexure 4.1-1

Annexure 4.1-2

slide51

The case method

  • Excellent medium for developing analytical skill.
  • Started by Harvard business school.
  • Some of the prestigious ones which strongly believe in case method are Asian Institute of Management, Manila and II M Ahmedabad
slide52

What is case ? A written description of an actual situation in business which provokes in the readers the need to decide what is going on, what the situation really is or what the problems are and what can and should be done?

or

A case is an objective description of a “real life” business situation in which executive are required to take action and are responsible for results.

slide54

How is the case used?

  • Most institutes use it for class room discussion
  • Some also insist on written analysis of cases as is required to be done in real life business situation
preparation for the case
Preparation for the case
  • For available data.
  • For identifying major issue.
  • Exploring alternate course of action.
  • Finally making decision based on analysis.
  • It is a dynamic and useful approach for learning.
  • Syndicates of 6 to 7 students is made.
  • These syndicates separately discuss and analyse.
  • All syndicates present their view point in front of whole class.
slide56

Steps in case analysis

  • Define the problem in the case – most difficult part of case process
  • It is important as doctors diagnosis
  • Trainer should act as facilitator but never define the problem
  • Set objective for problem solution
  • Out line alternative course of actions
  • Case conclusion
slide57

Important questions during case analysis

  • What is going on here?
  • What are their possible effect?
  • Is there a problem at all?
  • What precisely is the problem?
  • What has caused it?
  • Are we looking at causes or symptoms?
  • What are the main issues?
  • Why are the issues important?
  • Whose problem is it?
  • What precisely are his objectives?
  • What should he try to do now?
  • What possible courses of action are open?
  • How realistic are the actions proposed?
slide58

Writing a business case

  • Select the type of problem and enterprise form which the material will be obtained
  • Observe and collect data
  • Write case
  • Clear the case
  • Confirm usefulness of the case as teaching material
slide59

Syndicate method

  • Working in a small group to achieve a particular purpose
  • Participants learn from each other and contribute their experience
  • To reflect critically own his own work and experience
  • To update his knowledge of new concepts and techniques with the help of co-participants
  • To develop sound judgment through greater insight into human behaviour
  • This is useful only for experienced executives
slide60

Mechanics of method

  • Participants are divided into syndicates
  • Each syndicate functions as team from different interest
  • Each syndicate is given assignment which have to be finished and report submitted by specified date and time
  • By rotation each member becomes leader. Each member also becomes a secretary
  • Each assignment is given in the format of brief
  • Each syndicate has one directing staff who ensures fair opportunities for each member
  • Report of each syndicate is circulated to other syndicates for comments
  • Finally chairman/leader of each syndicate makes presentation in joint session
slide61

Advantages

  • It secures a very high level of involvement
  • It is a very good process of self education and development
  • It leads to critical thinking by participants
  • Practice of communicating
  • Resulting in broad minded realistic approach
slide62

Disadvantages

  • If directing staff does not do his job properly it may be waste of time
  • Poor structure of syndicate can lead to waste of time
  • Some participants may not show proper interest if proper pressure is not maintained
slide63

Business games characteristics

  • Learn while playing the game.
  • It is relevant to the situation in the industry
  • Business games help in reducing department loyalty conflicts
  • This is important for the growth and prosperity of an organisation
slide64

Definition

It is a simulation which consists of sequential decision making exercises, structured around a hypothetical model of an organisation’s operations in which participants assume rolls in managing the simulated operations. As it is simulation, there is no loss the organisation, in case mistakes are made by participants.

slide65

Types of business games

1) By coverage

  • Total enterprise games
  • Functional games
  • Other specialist games

2) By competitive element

  • Interacting games
  • Non interacting games

3) By processing of results

  • Computer games
  • Non computer games
slide66

Advantages

  • They are able to demonstrate some very broad but vital facets of organisational life.
  • It helps in changing attitude.
  • It provides experience in application of statistical and analytical method.
  • Learning more effective due to active participation .
slide67

Disadvantages

  • Costly method.
  • It may become a game to be won only.
  • Some games may be two simplified model of recently.
  • Some people may consider it as game to be played.
slide68

How to run a business game?

  • Briefing the group
  • First run by participants
  • First feed back
  • Publication of information on results achieved
  • Repeat rounds
  • End of the game
  • Evaluation
slide69

Trainers role

  • He should have complete understanding of the game
  • Clearly explain to all participants
  • Be alert to handle any situation
  • Give feed back quickly
  • Plan conduct of game carefully
  • Keep complete situation under control
  • Steer the discussion to productive channel of learning
  • Do not declare winners
  • Compare with real life situation where possible
  • See that objectives are met
slide70

Role play method

  • Active participation
  • Participant act out to the actual or imagining situation
  • Act out is followed by discussion and analysis
slide71

Unique values of role playing

  • Role playing experience demonstrates the gap between thinking and doing
  • It makes if clear that good human relation requires skills
  • Attitudinal changes effectively achieved
  • Sensitive to others feeling
  • Each person is able to discover to his own personal fault
  • It permits training in control of feelings and emotions
slide72

Single role play (structured)

  • Two or three persons play the role.
  • This allows the entire class to examine in depth all the dynamics and complexities
  • Some players tend to feel embarrassed
  • It makes to difficult for trainer to handle negative comments
slide73

Multiple role play (structured)

  • All trainees are players
  • A class is divided into groups and each player of group is given written role or an assignment as observer
  • It allows all members to participate
  • Varity of conclusion can be drown by various players
  • Cases no embracement to any player
slide74

Spontaneous role play

  • Used more often to help participant acquire an insight into his own problem
  • The trainer elicit some problem from group itself and does not use written material
slide75

Steps in role playing process

  • The warm up
  • The enactment
  • Post enactment discussion
slide76

In basket exercise

  • It is a simulation of manager’s work load on a given day.
  • It is driven from ‘IN’ & ‘OUT’ trays found on the table of executive
  • More prominent in govt offices
slide77

Methodology

  • Participant is required to assume the role of a manager in an organisaiton
  • He is given problems in the form of letters, memos and memoranda
  • All put in the in tray of participant
  • Participant to read papers and take appropriate action in limited time
  • In order to complete assignment in time, player to set priority, delegates to others etc
  • Participant has to write notes and memos to complete the exercise
  • Participant may be made to explain his action to other players
slide78

Design of In basket exercise

  • Prepare set of instructions for the participant
  • Prepare contents of IN Basket
  • Prepare notes for the guidance of trainer
slide79

Advantages

  • It is rooted in the real life situation of the corporate world
  • It enhance the skills in decision making and problem solving
  • Can be designed for a particular managerial position
  • It can be modified as per level of participants
  • Very good for specific skills
slide80

Disadvantages

  • Expensive to conduct and administer
  • It is essentially individual
slide81

How to run in basket?

  • Trainer to explain
  • Distribute instructions
  • Ask questions till understood
  • Distribute contents of in basket
  • Fix time limit
  • Allow discussion once time is up
slide82

Experiential learning techniques

  • It is an action oriented behavioural situation.
  • Participants generate their own data about each of the key concepts to be studied.
    • I hear and I forget.
    • I see and I remember.
    • I do and I understand. (Confucius)
  • It is a process of making meaning from direct experience.
  • Learning through reflection on doing.
  • Ex- Going to Zoo and learning through observation as against learning from books.
  • It requires no teacher but requires self initiative and self evaluation.
slide83

Sensitivity training

  • It provides participants an opportunity to actually experience some concepts of managements just as a manager would experience them in his organizational situation.
  • It is a group training method that uses intensive participation and immediate feed back for self analysis and change.
  • Participants remains involved and enthusiastic.
  • Reasonability of learning lies on self, so positive efforts.
  • It increases sensitivity and awareness towards others and their style.
  • It helps in understanding how conflict arises and are resolved.
  • As the name suggest training aims at developing sensitivity within people towards thoughts, feeling and behaviour of other persons.
slide84

T- Group

  • It leads to understanding of self and contribute towards organizational change and development through training in attitudinal changes
  • It can relieve from long harboured feelings of quilt and maintaining temporary sense of well being
  • T – groups are classified into stranger group, family groups and cousin groups.
slide85

Method of conducting T-groups

  • It consists of 8 to 15 persons,.
  • Data developed are here and now.
  • T- Group process concentrate on the present with total exclusion of past.
  • Psychological health of participants is essential, a person who cannot take criticism and become angry or over anxious hear them is unsuitable.
  • Heterogeneous group of persons are better than homogenous
slide86

Feed back

  • It should be honest.
  • State in behavioural terms. It should be descriptive not evaluative.
  • Keep it timely immediate and direct.
  • It should be based on behaviour exhibited in group and not on any thing else.
  • It should be constrictive and not to criticize
slide87

exercise

Class to make a group and sit in a circle.

Each participant to narrate his/her goal in life.

Other participants to make comments indicating why that goal is suitable or not suitable.

slide88

Sensitivity training through TA

  • As per TA theory there are three ego states in which a person operates at any given time
  • As per analysis of human behaviour based on ego states, Dr Eric Brine confirms that most of the personality of a person is build by the age of 5
  • In TA Training while people are discussing a particular subject a trainer by observing behaviour of each person is able to make out weather he is operating from child, adult or parent ego state and what is most desirable. (Exercise)
exercise
Exercise
  • Two of the participants to discuss on management education in India.
  • Others to observe them and find out how each is operating from different ego states.
  • On completion of discussion observers should narrate their observation.
slide90

Sensitivity training through fish bowl exercise

  • Objectives
    • To inculcate in participants the discipline of observing others and giving constrictive feedback
    • To learn about oneself, one’s behaviour and personality as seen through the eyes of others
slide91

Aspects to which fish bowl exercise can be put to use

  • Individual and group behaviour
  • Contents of communication
  • Roles individual play in groups
  • Inter group conflicts
  • Dynamics of groups problem solving
  • Decision making
  • Inter personal relations
slide92

Other aspects are

  • Method of conducting exercise
    • Around 25 people
    • Inner circle participate (target group)
    • Cluster circle, observes behaviour and provides feedback
    • Change positions of inner and outer circle
  • Role of trainer
  • Feedback method (Let us do it)
slide93

Audio visual aids

  • Black boards
  • Flip charts
  • Magnetic boards
  • Over head projects
  • Slide projector
  • Computer based projectors
slide94

Visual colours

As per ILO training handbook colours rank in order of attraction:-

  • Orange (ii) Red (iii) Blue (iv) Black

(v) Green (vi) Yellow (vii) Violet (viii) Grey

Preference Order

  • Blue (ii) Red (iii) Green (iv) Voilet

(vi) Orange (vii) Yellow

  • Visual should be simple written in bold letter
  • Each slide should have six points max.
slide95

Films

  • It stimulates interest
  • Students observe more and remember more
  • It can be used showing human relation, demonstrating selling technique and many other aspect
  • Film can be used in parts as clips (Ex)
slide96

Designing training programmes

Training is the gap between skills knowledge required to perform efficiently and skills knowledge one posses( add more)

slide97

Training situation check list

( tick for your organisation)

  • Employee turnover in my area is higher than in others organisation.
  • High absenteeism.
  • Overtime seems to be increasing faster than increase in work load.
  • Customer complaints are on the increase.
  • To many grievances and complaints from employees.
  • The moral of employees is lower than desired.
slide98

Continue

  • The error rate too high.
  • Many new employee not fully trained.
  • Output is much less than expected.
  • Some employees seems to be disinterested in certain tasks.
  • There are employees who can shoulder greater responsibility.
  • Some of the employees are not able to follow new procedures or technology.
  • Above checklist indicate that every organisation will tick mark many. However it will depend on what objectives are set by apex bodies.
slide99
Seven Steps for setting training objectives
  • Write down the nature of job for which training is to be done.
  • Then include quality and quantity standards that is going to be achieved from training programmme.
  • Equipment, procedure and criteria are needed
  • Alter / improve your training objectives if required
slide100

What training is not?

  • It is not for providing a break.
  • It is not the way of recognising good performance.
  • It is not the part of reward or incentive system
slide101

Training is quite relevant in the following areas

  • New employees
  • Operational improvement
  • Operational problems
  • Employees development
slide102

New employees

  • Decide how many employees would be joining your dept?
  • Specific task or job employee will be doing.
  • How many employees will be transferred from other departments to your’s and what would be their job?
  • Who will be best to train them?
  • Effective job trainers should have to following qualities
    • Good communicator.
    • Able to relate well with people.
    • They should be enthusiastic abut their work.
    • They should be knowledgeable to command respect.
slide103

Operational problem

  • For defining operational problem following to be answered
    • Where the problem is occurring?
    • What kind of problem it is?
    • How big the problem is?
    • How long the problem has persuaded?
    • No of people affected.
    • Reduction in overall performance by this problem.
slide104

Employee development

  • Development of employees for future responsibility is a long term process.
  • Hence it should not be taken lightly.
  • All high performers should receive some developmental training.
  • Do not dump so much growth mental training on high performer that it effects his present job.
  • Do not show favour to high performance.

Sample training programmes (124 – 130)

slide105

Conducting Training Programmes.

  • You should appoint programme coordinator.
  • You could also appoint programme director.
  • The programme director could be from that specilisation from which max. participants are there.
  • They should
      • Choose right faculty for the programme
      • Faculty could be some manager or from outside.
slide106

There should be stand by trainers who could be called upon at short notice

  • Correct experience and number of trainees should be selected.
  • The curriculum should be designed in such away that max utilisation of resources is made.
  • Availability of training material
  • Timing and sequence should be as per objective of the programme
  • Suitable location
  • Physical facilities and training equipments
slide108

EVALUATION OF TRAINING

Types of training evaluation

  • Context evaluation
  • Input evaluation
  • Out come evaluation
      • Immediate out come
      • Intermediate out come
      • Long term out come

Important

  • What needs to be changed
  • What procedure most likely to bring about this change
  • What evidence is there that change has occurred
purpose of evaluation
Purpose of Evaluation
  • To find out the extent to which objectives achieved.
  • To examine if course contents are relevant.
  • To evaluate general atmosphere in the class.
  • To assess the efficacy of the training methods.
  • To study the extent of participation by the trainees.
  • To see that instruction are conducted as planned.
  • To assess the motivation level of training department.
area of evaluation
Area of Evaluation
  • Contents:-
    • To what extent contents were relevant to objectives.
    • Were the contents given adequate coverage?
    • Was the sequencing proper?
  • Methodology:-
    • Methods used were useful and relevant.
    • Was there a variation in methods for effectiveness.
slide111

Facilities:-

    • Did the facilities create conducive environment for learning?
  • Resource persons:-
    • General bearing of trainer.
    • If he/she has the desired skills?
    • His body language and pronounces.
  • Behavioural Change:-
    • Is there a positive improvement in behaviour of trainees?
slide112

Kirkpatrick’s Model Of Evaluation

Step -1 Reaction - How well the trainees like the programme.

Step -2 Learning - what principles, facts & figures were learnt.

Step -3 Behavior - What changes in job behaviour resulted

Step -4 Results – What are the tangible results.

slide113

The sequence of Training Activities

Organization of Identified

Potential Training Need

Task / Data Analysis

Establish Training & Objectives

Reporting Result

Training Planning

Evaluation Activities

Information Break Down

Evaluating the Training Staff

Learning Out lines

Evaluating the Training Programmes

Selction & Design of Evaluation methods

During the Training

Evaluating the Learners

Scheduling / Training

slide114

Techniques of Evaluation

  • Reaction stage
    • Observation
    • Interview
    • Questionnaire
    • Rating scale - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 7,
  • Learning stage
    • Knowledge learning
    • Skill learning
    • Attitude learning
    • Job behaviour change
    • Results
slide116

Innovation in Training

  • Industrial revolution give emphasis to production.
  • A manufacturer was converting raw material in finished products.
  • A trainer started converting raw human being into developed hence training days become important.
  • Now we need to draw an analogy between seed and human resources facilitate.
  • New method
    • Grid seminar
    • SSL technology
    • Modular programmes by ILO
    • Walk about
indicators of training needs1
INDICATORS OF TRAINING NEEDS
  • Complaints from staff
  • Complaints from customers/clients
  • Poor quality of work
  • Frequent errors
  • Inadequate recruiting process
  • Large staff turnover
  • Performance dates not met
  • Conflict among staff
  • New equipment/ systems