Examining the Common Core State Standards . Text Dependent Writing Instruction Stuart Greenberg. A special thank you to Liz Greenberg & Katie Moeller. This Presentation…. Will familiarize you with some of the major challenges of teaching writing through the Common Core State Standards.
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Text Dependent Writing Instruction
A meta-analysis of 52 research articles and more than 700 research papers conclude a “good” teacher:
“... the most important factor affecting student learning is the teacher. ... The immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor.”
Wright, S.; Horn, S. & Sanders, W. (1997). 'Teacher and Classroom Context Effects on Student Achievement: Implications for Teacher Evaluation', Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 11, pp. 57-67.
Reading (including Reading Foundational Skills)
Speaking and Listening
An integrated model of literacy
Media requirements blended throughout
Speaking and Listening
Of the “3 Rs,” writing has been accorded the least attention.
Writing and reading depend on a common core of knowledge.
Reading is thinking guided by print.
When you’re faced with a writing assignment, a good vocabulary is an indispensable (very important or necessary) tool. If you have several synonyms (words with similar meanings) in your repertoire (“toolbox”), you’ll be able to choose the best word for the job. Avoid vague words like “stuff” or “things” when you write. These words do not give the reader a good sense of your meaning. Also, use strong verbs that give the reader good information.
Here’s an example: People do a lot of things.
BETTER: People perform a lot of tasks.
Vocabulary, language, writing and conversation combine as our primary tools in communications. Teaching vocabulary in an integrated manner requires a superhuman effort….
“If students are to make knowledge their own, they must struggle with the details, wrestle with the facts, and rework raw information and dimly understood concepts into language they can communicate to someone else. In short, if students are to learn, they must write.”
Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
reading it or reading it and rereading it/studying it/discussing
Writing types/purposes (standards 1−3)
Strong and growing across-the-curriculum emphasis on students writing arguments and informative/explanatory texts
Aligned with NAEP Writing Framework
Production and distribution of writing (standards 4−6)
Developing and strengthening writing
Using technology to produce and enhance writing
Research (standards 7−9)
Engaging in research and writing about sources
Range of writing (standard 10)
Writing routinely over various time frames
Conventions of standard English
Knowledge of language (standards 1−3)
Using standard English in formal writing and speaking
Using language effectively and recognizing language varieties
Vocabulary (standards 4−6)
Determining word meanings and word nuances
Acquiring general academic and domain-specific words and phrases
Student Sample: Grade 1, Informative/Explanatory
Student Sample: Grade 8, Informative/Explanatory
The place to start is with the things you have the most control over - leadership, scheduling, use of data, interactive passionate high quality instruction, and professional development.
To make this complex system work, knowledgeable leaders and dedicated teachers need to work together to establish a school culture focused on high standards and confidence that goals can be achieved.
Collins, J. L., & Gunning, T. (Eds.), Building struggling students' higher level literacy.
Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
De La Paz, S. (2005). Effects of historical reasoning instruction and writing strategy
mastery in culturally and academically diverse middle school classrooms. Journal
of Educational Psychology, 97, 139-156.
Graham, S., & Hebert, M. (2010). Writing to read: Evidence of how writing can
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Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). A meta-analysis of writing instruction for adolescent
students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 445–476)
Shanahan, T. (2004). Overcoming the dominance of communication: Writing to think
and learn. In T. L. Jetton & J. A. Dole (Eds.), Adolescent literacy research and
practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Shanahan, T. (2008). Relations among oral language, reading, and writing
development. In C. A. MacArthur, S. Graham, & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of
Writing Research (pp. 171-186). New York: Guilford Press.
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