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Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives Section 2: How Congress Is Organized Section 3: The Powers of Congress Section 4: How a Bill Becomes a Law. Chapter 5 The Legislative Branch. Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives. The Main Idea

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chapter 5 the legislative branch

Section 1:The Senate and the House of Representatives

Section 2: How Congress Is Organized

Section 3: The Powers of Congress

Section 4: How a Bill Becomes a Law

Chapter 5The Legislative Branch

slide2

Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives

The Main Idea

Congress is divided into two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives, and its members have certain qualifications.

Reading Focus

  • What are the two houses of Congress?
  • What are the qualifications, salaries, and rules of conduct for members of Congress?
members and terms lengths in the house and the senate

Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives

Members and terms lengths in the House and the Senate:
  • The House of Representatives has 435 members, who serve two-year terms.
  • The Senate has 100 members, two for each state, who serve six-year terms.
qualifications and salaries in the house and senate

Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives

Qualifications and salaries in the House and Senate:
  • Representatives: must be at least 25 years old, a U.S. citizen for at least seven years, and a legal resident of the state they represent
  • Senators: must be at least 30 years old, a U.S. citizen for at least nine years, and a legal resident of the state they represent
  • The yearly salary is $145,100.
misconduct by members of congress

Section 1: The Senate and the House of Representatives

Misconduct by members of Congress:
  • May lead to expulsion, removal from Congress, with a vote of two thirds of other members
  • May lead to censure, a written reprimand
slide6

SECTION1

Legislative Misconduct

Question: In what ways does Congress deal with misconduct by its members?

HOW

DESCRIPTION

written reprimand

Censure

removing a member from Congress

Expulsion

slide7

Section 2: How Congress Is Organized

The Main Idea

Congress is organized in a way that allows its members to consider and pass legislation without each member having to do everything.

Reading Focus

  • What are the terms and sessions of Congress?
  • How is Congress organized?
congressional sessions

Section 2: How Congress Is Organized

Congressional Sessions
  • Two sessions per term
  • Sessions begin in January each year, and a date to adjourn is agreed upon.
  • Sessions usually adjourn in August or September.
  • The president may call a special session when necessary.
congressional leaders

Section 2: How Congress Is Organized

Congressional Leaders
  • Speaker of the House—elected from the majority party
  • Floor leaders— elected in party caucuses to guide proposed laws through Congress
  • Party whips—persuade members to vote for legislation
  • Vice president —according to the Constitution presides over the Senate but only votes to break a tie
  • President pro tempore—fills in for the vice president when necessary
congressional committees

Section 2: How Congress Is Organized

Congressional Committees
  • Study all bills before they are presented to Congress
  • Members are nominated to committee assignments.
  • Senators serve on at least two standing committees.
  • Representatives serve on only two standing committees.
  • Standing committee membership is proportionate to party majority in each house.
  • Heads of Committee are now chosen by secret vote.
slide11

When Sessions Begin

How Long They Last

SECTION 2

Question: When does a session of Congress begin, and how long does it last?

The first session begins January 3 in odd-numbered years following the congressional election in November. The second session begins January 3 of the following year.

Sessions last as long as Congress wishes.

Adjournment dates are selected by Congress.

slide12

Section 3: The Powers of Congress

The Main Idea

The Constitution both defines and limits the powers of Congress.

Reading Focus

  • What types of powers are granted to Congress?
  • What are some of the limits on the powers of Congress?
five major areas in which congress makes laws

Section 3: The Powers of Congress

Five major areas in which Congress makes laws:
  • Financing government
  • Regulating and encouraging American trade and industry
  • Defending the country
  • Enforcing laws
  • Providing for growth
the elastic clause

Section 3: The Powers of Congress

The Elastic Clause
  • “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers”
  • allows Congress to stretch its delegated powers to manage new situations
the special powers of congress

Section 3: The Powers of Congress

The special powers of Congress:
  • House—begins impeachment proceedings, initiates bills to raise money, and selects president when no candidate receives sufficient electoral votes
  • Senate—holds impeachment trials, selects vice president when no candidate has sufficient electoral votes, approves treaties, approves high officials
congress is forbidden to

Section 3: The Powers of Congress

Congress is forbidden to:
  • Pass ex post facto laws, pass bills of attainder, suspend writ of habeas corpus, tax exports, pass laws violating the Bill of Rights, favor trade of any state, grant titles of nobility, or withdraw money without a law
slide17

financing government

defending the country

Congressional Powers

providing for growth

enforcing laws

regulating and encouraging U.S. trade and industry

SECTION 3

Question: What are the five major areas in which Congress has the power to make laws?

slide18

Section 4: How a Bill Becomes a Law

The Main Idea

To become a law, a bill goes through a multistage process involving both houses of Congress.

Reading Focus

  • How does a bill begin?
  • How do the House and the Senate consider a bill?
  • In what ways can the president act on the bill?
ideas for bills originate from

Section 4: How a Bill Becomes a Law

Ideas for bills originate from:
  • U.S. citizens—constituents making requests of their congress members
  • Organized groups—businesspeople and labor groups seeking to protect their interests
  • Committees of Congress—investigating committees determine needs for new laws
  • Members of Congress—experts in certain fields propose new laws
  • The president—often introduces ideas for laws in the State of the Union Address
bills introduced in either house of congress

Section 4: How a Bill Becomes a Law

Bills introduced in either house of Congress
  • Are read and placed in the Congressional Record.
  • Are sent to a standing committee to be studied.
  • Receive hearings by the committees and are amended.
  • The committee majority can recommend that a bill be passed.
  • Bills reported out of committee are placed on the calendar for debate.
  • The bill is voted on and sent to the other house of Congress for consideration.
  • Approved bills are sent to the president.
actions of the president regarding a bill

Section 4: How a Bill Becomes a Law

Actions of the president regarding a bill:
  • sign the bill and declare it a law
  • veto the bill and send it back to Congress
  • hold the bill for 10 days, when it becomes a law or is killed by pocket veto
slide22

SECTION 4

Question: What actions can the president take regarding a passed bill?

If Congress is in session, the BILL BECOMES LAW,

even without a signature.

SIGNS THE BILL and it becomes law

The president KEEPS the BILL for 10 DAYS without signing or vetoing it:

The president ACTS on a Bill

If Congress is not in session, the bill is killed by POCKET VETO.

REFUSES TO SIGN and sends back to Congress with rejection reasons – called a VETO.

slide23

Chapter 5 Wrap-Up

  • 1. Why did the framers of the Constitution create a bicameral national legislature?
  • 2. What two methods does Congress have to deal with misconduct by its members?
  • 3. Who leads the houses of Congress, and how are these leaders chosen?
  • 4. Why is most of the work of Congress done through committees?
  • 5. What special powers does each house of Congress have?
  • 6. How do bills become laws?
  • 7. What can the president do with a bill passed by Congress?