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THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. Introduction. The circulatory system is comprised of: the heart, veins, capillaries, arteries, lymph vessels, lymph glands, which work together to supply the body tissues with nourishment and collect waste materials. What is the circulatory system?.

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THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


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    1. THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

    2. Introduction • The circulatory system is comprised of: • the heart, • veins, • capillaries, • arteries, • lymph vessels, • lymph glands, • which work together to supply the body tissues with nourishment and collect waste materials.

    3. What is the circulatory system? • The cardiovascular system carries blood and • dissolved substances to and from different places • in the body. • The Heart has the job of pumping these things around the body. • The Heart pumps blood and substances around the body in tubes called blood vessels. • The Heart and blood vessels together make up the cardiovascular System.

    4. Functions of the circulatory system: Distribute nutrients, Transport and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide, Remove waste materials, Distribute secretions of endocrine glands,

    5. Prevent excessive bleeding, Prevent infection, and Regulate body temperature.

    6. How does this system work? pulmonary vein lungs pulmonary artery head & arms aorta main vein Right Left liver digestive system kidneys legs Circulatory System

    7. Lungs Body cells Our cardiovascular system is a double circulatory system. This means it has two parts parts. the right side of the system deals with deoxygenated blood. the left side of the system deals with oxygenated blood.

    8. Anatomy of the Heart The heart is a funnel-shaped, hollow, muscular organ that is responsible for pumping blood to all parts of the body. The heart is located near the center of the thoracic cavity between the lungs and is contained in the pericardial sac. The pericardial sac supports the heart and contains some fluid for lubrication.

    9. Location of Heart in Thorax

    10. Location of Heart in Chest • Oblique Position • Apex = Left of Midline (5th ICS), Anterior to rest of heart • Base (posterior surface) sits on vertebral column • Superior Right = 3rd Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum • Superior Left = 2nd Costal Cartilage, 1” left midsternum • Inferior Right = 6th Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum • Inferior Left = 5th Intercostal Space at Midclavicular line

    11. The broad end, or base, of the heart is also supported by large arteries and veins. The pointed end, or apex, of the heart is directed toward the abdomen.

    12. The heart wall is made up of three layers. • Epicardium – outer layer of heart wall, which is also the • inner layer of epicardial sac; • Endocardium – inner layer that consists of • endothelial cells, which line the heart, covers the • heart valves, and lines the blood vessels. . Myocardium – middle layer composed of cardiac muscle. The cardiac muscle is an involuntary, striated muscle with fibers that intertwine.

    13. In mammals and birds, the heart is divided into a right and left side and each side is divided into an atrium and ventricle. Therefore, the heart is said to have fourchambers(right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, and leftventricle).

    14. The atrioventricularvalves(AV valve) separate the atrium and ventricle on each side of the heart. The AV valves have flaps of tissues, called leaflets or cusps, which open and close to ensure that the blood flows only in one direction and does not backflow into the atriums. The AV valve on the right side of the heart is called the tricuspid valve because it has three leaflets (cusps). The AV valve on the left side of the heart is called the bicuspid valve (or mitral valve) because it has two leaflets. The pulmonary valve and the aortic valve prevent blood from back-flowing into their respective ventricles.

    15. The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aortic artery.

    16. A group of cells called the sinoatrialnode (SA node) control the beat of the heart by sending out electrical signals to make the heart pump.

    17. Heart Innervation • Heart receives visceral motor innervation • Sympathetic (speeds up) • Parasympathetic (slows down) p. 534 Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

    18. The Heart This is a vein. It brings blood from the body, except the lungs. These are arteries. They carry blood away from the heart. 2 atria Coronary arteries, the hearts own blood supply 2 ventricles The heart has four chambers now lets look inside the heart

    19. Blood supply to heart wall • Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries • Branch from Ascending Aorta • Have multiple branches along heart • Sit in Coronary Sulcus • Coronary Heart Disease • Cardiac Veins • Coronary Sinus (largest) • Many branches feed into sinus • Sit in Coronary Sulcus

    20. A heart attack often involves a clot in the coronary arteries or their branches. In this illustration, a clot is shown in the location of #1. Area #2 shows the portion of the damaged heart that is affected by the clot. .

    21. The Heart Artery to Lungs Artery to Head and Body Vein from Head and Body Vein from Lungs Right Atrium Left Atrium valve valve Left Ventricle Right Ventricle

    22. blood from the lungs blood from the body The heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria. How does the Heart work? STEP ONE

    23. The atria then contract and the valves open to allow blood into the ventricles. How does the Heart work? STEP TWO

    24. The valves close to stop blood • flowing backwards. • The ventricles contract forcing • the blood to leave the heart. • At the same time, the atria are • relaxing and once again filling with • blood. How does the Heart work? STEP THREE The cycle then repeats itself.

    25. blood from the heart gets around the body through blood vessels There are 3 types of blood vessels a. ARTERY b.VEIN c.CAPILLARY

    26. Walls of Arteries and Veins • Tunica externa • Outermost layer • CT w/elastin and collagen • Strengthens, Anchors • Tunica media • Middle layer • Circular Smooth Muscle • Vaso-constriction/dilation • Tunica intima • Innermost layer • Endothelium • Minimize friction • Lumen

    27. ARTERImempunyai 3 lapisan : • TUNICA ADVENTITIA/EXTERNA , MERUPAKAN LAPISAN TERLUAR , TERDIRI DARI JARINGAN IKAT FIBROUS DAN BERFUNGSI SEBAGAI LAPISAN PELINDUNG. • TUNICA MEDIA, TERDIRI DARI JARINGAN OTOT DAN ELASTIK, MERUPAKAN LAPISAN YANG KUAT; MEMBUAT PEMBULUH DARAH TETAP TERBUKA DAN KONTRAKSI JARINGAN OTOTNYA MEMBERIKAN TEKANAN YANG TETAP TERHADAP ALIRAN DARAH. • TUNICA INTIMA, MERUPAKAN LAPISAN TERDALAM DAN TERDIRI DARI LAPISAN ENDOTHELIUM.

    28. ARTERI : • ARTERI BESAR (ELASTIC ARTERY): • ARTERI SEDANG (MUSCULAR ARTERY): • ARTERI KECIL (ARTERIOLE):

    29. VENA • JUGA MEMPUNYAI 3 LAPISAN SEPERTI ARTERI • TUNICA MEDIA LEBIH TIPIS (JAR OTOT DAN ELASTIK), SEHINGGA LEBIH MUDAH KEMPIS DAN KURANG ELASTIS DIBANDING DENGAN ARTERI • MEMPUNYAI KATUB YANG DISUSUN SEDEMIKIAN RUPA SEHINGGA DARAH DARAH NORMAL HANYA MENGALIR KE COR DAN TIDAK SEBALIKNYA • TERDIRI VENA BESAR, VENA SEDANG DAN VENULE

    30. The VEIN Veins carry blood towards from the heart. veins have valves which act to stop the blood from going in the wrong direction. thin muscle and elastic fibres body muscles surround the veins so that when they contract to move the body, they also squeeze the veins and push the blood along the vessel.

    31. Artery/Vein differences Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

    32. KAPILER • Ialah pembuluh darah yg sangat kecil tempat arteriole berakhir dan venule mulai • Makin kecil arteri ketiga lapisan diatas makin tak jelas, sehingga ketika sampai di kapiler yang sehalus rambut dindingnya tinggal 1 lapis saja yaitu endothelium. • Lapisan yang tipis ini memungkinkan pertukaran bahan dengan sel, dimana bahan makanan dan O2 masuk ke dalam sel sedangkan CO2 dan sisa metabolisme masuk ke dalam kapiler.

    33. Capillaries • Microscopic--one cell layer thick • Network • Bathed in extracellular matrix of areolar tissue • Entire goal of C-V system is to get blood into capillaries where diffusion takes place Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy

    34. The CAPILLARY Capillaries link Arteries with Veins they exchange materials between the blood and other body cells. the wall of a capillary is only one cell thick The exchange of materials between the blood and the body can only occur through capillaries.

    35. The CAPILLARY A collection of capillaries is known as a capillary bed. artery vein capillaries body cell

    36. AORTA • AORTA ASCENDENS : • A. CORONARIA DEXTRA ET SINISTRA • ARCUS AORTA • AORTA DESCENDENS : • AORTA THORACALIS • AORTA ABDOMINALIS

    37. II. ARCUS AORTA : • A. BRACHIOCEPHALICA: • A. SUBCLAVIA DEXTRA • A. CAROTIS COMMUNIS DEXTRA: • A. CAROTIS INT. DEXTR. • A. CAROTIS EXT. DEXTR. 2. A. CAROTIS COMMUNIS SINISTRA: • A. CAROTIS INT. SIN. • A. CAROTIS EXT. SIN. 3. A. SUBCLAVIA SINISTRA.

    38. III. A. AORTA THORACALIS: • Aa. INTERCOSTALIS • Aa. BRONCHIALIS • Aa. ESOPHAGEALIS

    39. III.B. AORTA ABDOMINALIS • Aa. PHRENICA ABD. DEXTRA ET SINISTRA • A. COELIACA • Aa. SUPRARENALIS MEDIA DEXTRA ET SINISTRA • Aa. RENALIS DEXTRA ET SINISTRA • Aa. TESTICULARIS / OVARICA DEXT. ET SIN. • A. MESENTERICA SUP. • A. MESENTERICA INF. • Aa. LUMBALIS • Aa. ILIACA COMMUNIS: • Aa. ILIACA EXTERNA • Aa. ILIACA INTERNA

    40. III.B. AORTA ABDOMINALIS • Aa. PHRENICA ABD. DEXTRA ET SINISTRA • A. COELIACA • Aa. SUPRARENALIS MEDIA DEXTRA ET SINISTRA • Aa. RENALIS DEXTRA ET SINISTRA • Aa. TESTICULARIS / OVARICA DEXT. ET SIN. • A. MESENTERICA SUP. • A. MESENTERICA INF. • Aa. LUMBALIS • Aa. ILIACA COMMUNIS: • Aa. ILIACA EXTERNA • Aa. ILIACA INTERNA

    41. ARTERI UNTUK LEHER DAN KEPALA • A. CAROTIS EXTERNA • A. CAROTIS INTERNA • A. VERTEBRALIS • A. MENINGICA MEDIA

    42. ARTERI UNTUK EXTREMITAS SUPERIOR • A. AXILLARIS • A. BRACHIALIS • A. RADIALIS • A. ULNARIS

    43. ARTERI UNTUK EXTREMITAS INFERIOR • A. FEMORALIS • A. POPLITEA • A. TIBIALIS ANTERIOR • A. TIBIALIS POSTERIOR • A. DORSALIS PEDIS • Aa. PLANTARIS MEDIALIS ET LATERALIS