Videos • Scramble for Africa for Handout for handout first Stop at 21:36
Imperialism In The Rubber Coils
To Civilize Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily. 10 Minutes Introduction to Scramble For Africa
Videos • Scramble for Africa for Handout for handout first 21:36 • Imperialism Video 4:00
The “OPENING UP” OF AFRICA • Mid-1800s • Missionaries and explorers sparked foreign interest in Africa
DAVID LIVINGSTONE (1813-1873) • Scottish missionary • 1841-1873 – lived in central Africa • Explored Africa • Victoria Falls • Convert • Wrote books on Africa = foreign interest • 1871 – • “lost”- “Found” by Henry Stanley • “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” • Video • Song
ExplorationDr. Livingstone, I Presume?” • David Livingstone • Doctor/Missionary • Mapping the “Dark Continent” because little was known about it at the time • Open the interior ofAfrica for commerce & Christianity David Livingstone
The Scramble for Africa # 1. Colonization of Africa by Europeans 1880-1914 #3 Great Britain, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Germany, Belgium King Leopold II of Belgium
Imperialism: The policy by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.
How Did Imperialism Begin? A coaling station for steamships, Cape Town, South Africa
Economic Motives #1 Industrialized nations sought: • Raw materials • Natural resources • A cheap labor supply • New marketplaces for manufactured goods • Control means of production
The Industrial Revolution • The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the mid-18th century • Britain’s advantages • The spread of industrialization
Technological Advances • The steam engine • Better transportation • Increased exploration • Improvements in communication The steamboat Herald (with mounted machine guns) on the Zambezi river in Africa One of the first steam engines
Cecil Rhodes #12 • British imperialist who made huge profits from Africa’s natural resources • Founder of the state of Rhodesia in Africa
“The Rhodes Colossus” This cartoon depicts British imperial ambitions to control the entire African continent. plans for a telegraph line and railroad from Cape Town to Cairo
Motives #1 • Religious: tospread the benefits of Christianity and Western Culture • Political: competition fuel by Nationalism, Empire Building
The strong, industrialized nations of Europe used imperialism to seize colonies & dominate the local gov’ts & economies in Africa & Asia
Justification for Imperialism • A desire to “civilize” non-Europeans also spurred the development of imperialism #6 • Social Darwinism • Europeans believed in the “white man’s burden” that they had a responsibility to civilize the world – From a poem in support of imperialism/Humanitarian help Herbert Spencer First to use - “Survival of the Fittest” Darwin’s handwritten cover page for The Origin of Species Populations evolve
Christianity Civilization Describe 3 examples of European ethnocentrism in the political cartoon.
Imperialism Quote • “If you woke up one morning and found that somebody had come to your house, and had declared that the house belonged to him, you would naturally be surprised, and you would like to know by what arrangement.” • Jomo Kenyatta – 1st President of Kenya • How does this quote show an African reaction to European Imperialism in Africa? Use 3 examples
Imperialism Quote • Desmond Tutu … “when the missionaries came to Africa, they had the Bible and we had the land. They said ‘let us close our eyes and pray’. When we opened them, we had the Bible, and they had the land”. • How does this quote show an African reaction to European Imperialism in Africa? Use 3 examples
The Maxim Gun #4 British troops fighting forces in Benin in 1897 and Quinine an old treatment for Malaria
The Berlin Conference1884 #5 Rules to divide Africa among European powers to avoid conflict among European powers= Artificial Borders Moral Justification #6: To civilize
European Control of Africa • By 1914, only two African nations remained independent • Liberia and Ethiopia #2 • England and France controlled most of Africa #7
Direct vs. Indirect Rule #8 European nations chose one of two different paths when it came to colonial rule: Indirect rule: colonies were ruled through existing traditional rulers – by proxy - British Example: Nigeria Direct rule: the colony was directly administered by the colonizer -French Example: Senegal Result: loss of power and influence By Traditional rulers
Methods of Management • Indirect Rule: This form relied on using the existing African political rulers. • Britain sometimes asked local chiefs to accept British rule and legislative councils were formed and included colonial (European) officials and merchants. • The idea was that these councils would train the Africans, and at some point in time, these territories would be able to rule themselves, much like Australia and Canada.
Methods of Management • Direct Rule: The French and most other European countries preferred stronger control because they felt that Africans were not civilized enoughto rule themselves. • They adopted a policy of paternalism, in which the Europeans acted like the Africans’ parents in providing for their survival, but denying them rights. • They avoided training locals, and instead, brought along Europeans to rule the Africans. • The French also supported a policy of assimilation, in which the native population would take on French customs and culture and be like them. #9 • African customs and culture were looked at as inferior, or not as good as French culture. #9 • Africans no political voice
Cash Crop/Money Economy #10 • Africans sold labor to make money to pay taxes and buy goods • Problems • Created dependence on Colonial rulers
#12 Aim of Colonial Rulers • To benefit Colonial/European economies accomplished by cash crop system and forced labor • King Leopold II of Belgium
5-8 Million Victims! (50% of Popul.) It is blood-curdling to see them (the soldiers) returning with the hands of the slain, and to find the hands of young children amongst the bigger ones evidencing their bravery...The rubber from this district has cost hundreds of lives, and the scenes I have witnessed, while unable to help the oppressed, have been almost enough to make me wish I were dead... This rubber traffic is steeped in blood, and if the natives were to rise and sweep every white person on the Upper Congo into eternity, there would still be left a fearful balance to their credit. -- Belgian Official
#13 African Resistance and failure • Many Africans resisted European rule • Millions of Africans died • Europeans = superior military technology • North Africa: Algerians fought French • West Africa: Ibo and Fulani fought British • Congo Free State: 20 years of fighting • Ethiopia exception: European training preserved independence
African Resistance #13 • Africans Confront Imperialism • Broad resistance, but Europeans have superior weapons • Unsuccessful Movements • Algeria fights the French for 50 years • German East Africa resistance results in 75,000 deaths • Successful Movements • Ethiopia under Emperor Menelik II • Plays Europeans against each other • Stockpiles modern weapons • Defeats Italy and remains independent
African Resistance • Unsuccessful Attempts: Africans resisted Europeans in both military conflict, and through religious resistance. • Algeria was able to resist French rule for 50 years. • French West Africa held out for 16 years because it had a strong king named Samori Toure that had modernized his military. • In the end, only famine could beat Toure.
African Resistance Maji-Maji prisoners captured by Germans. • German East Africa: Natives in this region used religious faith as defense. • German colonizers had forced them to grow cash crops, such as cotton, instead of food. • Natives came to believe that if magic water called maji-maji were sprinkled on their bodies, they would be bullet-proof • Furthermore, they believed that God had approved of their struggle, and that their dead ancestors would rise from the grave and help them against the Germans. • As many as 75,000 were mowed down by German Maxim machine guns, and 150,000 more starved to death later.
African Resistance • Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance:Ethiopia was the only country that successfully resisted Europeans. • Its king, Menelik II, played all of the European countries off of each other (tricked them) as they tried to convince him to be under their sphere of influence, • While he tricked them, he bought modern weapons from the French and Russians.
African Resistance • In signing a treaty with Italy, Menelik II realized that he had been tricked by differences in translation between languages, and that he had given up control of his country. • Menelik declared war on Italy, and was able to beat Italy at the Battle of Adowa. 1896 • Menelik II continued to stockpile weapons to resist any other attempts to take over his country.
The Zulu Ethiopia • Zulu people resisted colonialization more than 50 years • Zulu leader Shaka built strong kingdom by subduing several neighboring peoples • 1879, British invaded Zulu territory, annexed kingdom as colony • Only nation to retain independence by matching European firepower • 1889, emperor MenelikII modernized nation, army • 1895, Italian forces invaded over treaty dispute • Menelik’s forces defeated Italians African Resistance Africans did not passively accept European claims to rule over them. As European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiff resistance. Even without modern weapons, other Africans still fiercely resisted European powers.
French and Germans • French West Africa • West Africa, leader of Malinke peoples, Samory Touré, formed army to fight against French rule; fought for 15 years; proclaimed self king of Guinea • 1898, French defeated Touré, ended resistance to French rule in West Africa • German East Africa • Africans called on gods, ancestors for spiritual guidance in resistance • 1905, several African peoples united to rebel against Germans’ order to grow cotton for export to Germany • Rebellion Put Down • To combat Germans, spiritual leader encouraged followers to sprinkle magic water over bodies to protect selves from German bullets; did not work • Rebellion quickly put down; Germans killed tens of thousands of Africans
The Legacy of Imperialism Caricature of former Ugandan dictator Idi Amin Mozambican war refugees, 1978
How do the pictures show how life changed for Africans after the arrival of Europeans? 3 examples
Effects ofImperialism in Africa • European quest to control natural resources • Doing so led to drastic changes in the infrastructure of the continent The port of Zanzibar around 1900
Effects • New political systems – reflected own traditions • Direct and Indirect Rule • European law codes • New Economic pattern: • money economy, cash crops, taxes, lack of diversity • Plantations for cash crops instead of food • Economic gaps • Dependence • Transportation = Railroads • Communication = telegraph • Education • Sanitation and water systems • Medical Care (missionaries)= population growth • migrant workers, chibaro (forced labor) = breakdown of Family
Effects • New attitude towards land = Land ownership • Racism • Christianity • Artificial boundaries • Educated African elite • some rejected traditional culture some took pride in traditional culture • Nationalism • Westernization • Generalization: change and breakdown of traditional values and organizations
Economic Consequences Cash Crops • depleted the soil and made it difficult to grow subsistence crops. • undermine local industries because they took most of the labor force. • once colonies gained their independence, years of dependence on a single cash crop made it difficult to modernize and diversify their economies Result: Slowed development and modernization
#15 Effects of WWII in Africa • Turning point to the Rise of Nationalist Movements • Europe made some reforms but too late – ex. African gov’t official • Why? • African saw the human side of European while serving together – not superior – destroyed their invincibility • An increasing number of Africans reasoned that a war in which Europeans slaughtered fellow Europeans, meant that colonial regimes had little right to lecture African leaders and people about how to conduct their affairs
Effects of European Imperialism on Africa Directions: Using your answers from question #14 from Scramble for Africa sheet and pages 102-104 from the text, categorize the effects of European Imperialism on Africa an improvement or disruption to African culture. Was European Imperialism in Africa more disruptive or beneficial to the African culture and its people? Support your answer with evidence.
Improvement • Material Improvements • Transportation and communication • RR and Telegraphs • Hospitals • Sanitation and water systems • Formal education system (western) • Educated African elite = Nationalism