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Natural Riparian Resources. Water. Vegetation. Landscape & Soil. Riparian/Wetland Vegetation Groups. Stabilizers Intermediate Colonizers Invaders. Stabilizer group. Establish along streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, springs, & seeps Strong, fibrous, deep root system Rhizomatous

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Natural riparian resources l.jpg
Natural Riparian Resources

Water

Vegetation

Landscape & Soil


Riparian wetland vegetation groups l.jpg
Riparian/Wetland Vegetation Groups

  • Stabilizers

  • Intermediate

  • Colonizers

  • Invaders


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Stabilizer group

  • Establish along streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, springs, & seeps

  • Strong, fibrous, deep root system

  • Rhizomatous

  • Provide protection against water’s energy


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Root Mass

(Weight)

Root Length

Manning, M.E., et al, 1989


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Sedges (Carex)

“Sedges have edges”

Stem Triangular

Solid

Leaves 3-ranked


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Typical Habitat

Saturated Soils

Beaked Sedge

(Carex utriculata)

Formerly

(Carex rostrata)


Nebraska sedge carex nebrascensis emery creek l.jpg
Nebraska sedge(Carex nebrascensis)Emery Creek


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Panicled bulrush (Scirpus microcarpus)


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Rushes (Juncus)

“Rushes are Round”

Solid and Round

or Compressed

Leaves Alternate or

2-Ranked


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Typical Growth Pattern

Baltic Rush or Wire Grass

(Juncus balticus)



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True Grasses

Stem Hollow

With

Nodes and Internodes

Leaves 2-ranked


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Fowl Manna Grass(Glyceria striata)

Blue Joint Reedgrass

(Calamagrostis canadensis)


Reeds canarygrass phalaris arundinacea little wood river l.jpg
Reeds Canarygrass(Phalaris arundinacea)Little Wood River


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Woody Species (Willow, Alder, Birch, etc.)


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Willow Roots

Willow

Willow

Birch

Alder

Red Osier Dogwood


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Intermediate

  • Plants that are considered colonizers

    • Establish on freshly deposited soil or disturbed sites

  • Have intermediate root systems

  • Can result in proper functioning condition


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Spike Rush

(Eleocharis pauciflora)


Coyote sand bar willow salix exigua teton river l.jpg
Coyote (Sand Bar) Willow (Salix exigua)Teton River


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Arroyo Willow

(Salix lasiolepis)


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Cottonwood(Populus spp.)South Fork Snake River



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Colonizers

  • First to establish

    • freshly deposited soil

    • shallow open water

    • barren areas

  • Root systems

    • stoloniferous or rhizomatous

    • shallow and relatively weak

  • Critical to recovery


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Water-cress

(Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)

Brook Grass(Catabrosia aquatica)


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Short-awned Foxtail

(Alopecurus arundinaceus)


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Invaders

  • Replaces stabilizers species as a result of disturbance.

  • Shallow, less massive root systems

  • Less protective of streambanks against water’s energy

  • Noxious weeds


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Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa prentensis) East Fork Castle Creek

Redtop

(Agrostis gigentea) Formerly A.stoloniferand alba


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Leafy Spurge

Purple Loosestrife



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6) There is diverse age-class distribution of riparian-wetland vegetation (recruitment for maintenance/recovery)

  • Purpose: To determine if the number of age classes that provide recruitment to maintain an area or to allow an area to recover are present. Multiple age-classes usually indicate that riparian-wetland areas can recover or maintain themselves.

    • Need to determine if reach has potentialfor woody vegetation and if it is necessary for functionality

    • At least 2 age-classes should be present

    • One of the age-class should be young

    • Older age classes can persist in degraded conditions

    • This is presence/absence issue, not an amount

    • Closed canopy/late seral types may have limited age-class diversity but still should have some



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Yes sufficient willow age class diversity system likely needs willow herbaceous veg to recover l.jpg
“Yes” Sufficient willow age-class diversity – system “likely” needs willow & herbaceous veg to recover


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“No” Insufficient willow age-class diversity (all mature) system needs willow to function



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7) There is diverse composition of Cottonwood (Populus angustifolia) riparian-wetland vegetation (for maintenance/recovery)

  • Purpose: To determine if the existing species composition is sufficient for maintenance or recovery. Diverse composition of riparian-wetland vegetation (relative to the site’s potential), is necessary to provide stability to the site.

    • Not all species a site is capable of producing need to be present, but more than two are common and required in most cases

    • This is a presence/absence question not amount

    • At least stabilizing species present (upland plants do not count)

    • Addresses entire riparian area (not just streambanks)




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Yes system needs to recover has adequate r w vegetation diversity to do it l.jpg
“Yes” system needs to recover & has adequate R-W (2 species of sedge)vegetation diversity to do it




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8) Species present indicate maintenance of riparian soil moisture characteristics

  • Purpose: To determine if the water table level is being maintained or raised as indicated by the presence of riparian-wetland vegetation. Maintenance of an existing water table or restoration of a former one is vital to the functionality of the system.

    • Flow regime will dictate the kind and extent of riparian-wetland plants – need to understand site potential

    • Obligate & Facultative Wetland plants must dominate the reach in order for a yes answer to be given


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Indicator Categories moisture characteristicsIn: National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands (USFWS) website -- http://www.nwi.fws.gov/bha/list88.html

  • Obligate Wetland (OBL):Occur almost always in wetlands.

  • Facultative Wetland (FACW): Usually occur in wetlands but occasionally in nonwetlands.

  • Facultative (FAC): Equally likely to occur in wetlands or nonwetlands.


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Indicator Categories moisture characteristics

  • Facultative Upland (FACU): Usually occur in nonwetlands.

  • Obligate Upland (UPL): Occur in wetlands in another region, but occur almost always in nonwetlands.


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Coyote willow - (FACW) moisture characteristics


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Nebraska sedge - (OBL) moisture characteristics

“Yes”



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“No” – Stream incised/incising – water table being abandoned – OBL and FACW species being replaced by facultative species


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Yes, species present indicate maintenance of riparian soil moisture characteristics at new elevation

Yellow willow

Scirpus


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9) moisture characteristics at new elevationStreambank vegetation is comprised of those plants or plant communities that have root masses capable of withstanding high stream flow events

  • Purpose: To determine if the right kinds of plants or plant communities (deep rooted) occur on the streambank. Deep rooted plants are necessary for long-term streambank stability.

    • Streambank is the part of the channel between the scour line and the first terrace (usually “bankfull” elevation)

    • Not a quantity question per se

      • Presence or absence

    • Most obligate wetland or facultative wetland plants have root masses that stabilize streambanks

    • Focus is on the streambank – are the streambanks comprised of at least patches of recognizable plant groupings?


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Streambank moisture characteristics at new elevation


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Winward, 2000 moisture characteristics at new elevation


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Root Mass moisture characteristics at new elevation

(Weight)

Root Length

Manning, M.E., et al, 1989


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Channel Stability Rating (Vegetation) moisture characteristics at new elevation

Adequate Root Strength

Winward 2000

Appendix B




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No, although streambank is dominated by an obligate species (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer


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Streambank comprised of stabilizers? Yes (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer


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10) Riparian-wetland plants exhibit high vigor (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer

  • Purpose: To determine if riparian-wetland plants are healthy and robust. Item is important but difficult to answer

    • Look for obvious indicators of plant vigor (plant growth form, leaf color, plant size, etc.)


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Plant Vigor-Leaves and Roots (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer Caring for the Green Zone, Riparian Areas and Grazing ManagementAlberta Riparian Habitat Management Project, “Cows and Fish Project”


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Low vigor of Nebraska Sedge (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer

  • Are the herbaceous stabilizer (late seral) species obvious individual plants?

  • Are there new stabilizing herbaceous plants around the perimeter of the mat?


Yes obviously high vigor herbaceous woody l.jpg
Yes, obviously high vigor (herbaceous & woody) (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer


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Low Plant Vigor (Arizona willow) (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer


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11) Adequate (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer riparian-wetland vegetative cover present to protect banks and dissipate energy during high flows

  • Purpose: To determine if there is an adequate amount of riparian-wetland vegetation cover. It is crucial for the banks to have enough R-W vegetation to be able to function properly.

    • This item deals with amount while items 6-10 deal with other aspects of vegetation


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Key to Greenline Riparian Capability Groups (Winword 2000) (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer

Percent gradient and substrate classes modified from Rosgen (1996).

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-47. 2000

Abbreviations Used:

Sl ......................Silt ...............................<0.02 mm

C ......................Clay .............................0.02-0.05 mm

S ......................Sand ...........................0.05-2.0 mm

GR ...................Gravel .........................0.2-76 mm ....................08-3 in

CB ...................Cobble .......................76-250 mm ..................3-9.8 in

BD ...................Boulder ......................>250 mm ......................>9.8 in

Consol. ...........Consolidated Material

Non-Consol. ..Non-Consolidated Material

(Co Consolidated material refers to situations where at least one major soil horizon with within the root rooting zone consists of strongly compacted, cohesive, or Ce cemented particles.

Values in parentheses refer to percent of the greenline that should be represented by late seral community types or anchored rocks/logs when riparian areas fitting each capability group are functioning properly.


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No, inadequate amount of riparian-wetland vegetation cover (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer


No inadequate amount of riparian wetland vegetation cover73 l.jpg
No, inadequate amount of riparian-wetland vegetation cover (spikerush) but it is not a deep rooted stabilizer




Adequate amount of r w veg cover no right bank is dominated by kentucky bluegrass l.jpg
Adequate amount of R-W veg cover ? No – right bank is dominated by kentucky bluegrass

Presence of riparian-wetland species (item 8)? Yes (CANE)

Streambanks comprised of stabilizing plants (item 9)? Yes


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12) Plant communities are an adequate dominated by kentucky bluegrasssource of coarse and/or large woody material (for maintenance/recovery)

  • Purpose: To determine if streamside trees are present in adequate amounts to be incorporated into the channel to aid in energy dissipation.

    • First must determine if large wood is necessary for functionality (many systems in the intermountain west do not require large wood for functionality)

    • Sufficiently large to act as a hydrologic modifier


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Coarse/large wood is present and assisting in stream function but is it necessary for physical function?


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Coarse/large wood is present and assisting in stream function but is it necessary for physical function?Hanna Creek, Black Hills


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Natural Riparian Resources function but is it necessary for physical function?

Water

Vegetation

Landscape/Soil