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Developmental Disabilities: A Public Health School Issue. What are Developmental Disabilities (DD)?. Severe and chronic interference of a persons functionality which is attributable to a mental or physical impairment or a combination of mental and physical impairment.

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What are Developmental Disabilities (DD)?

  • Severe and chronic interference of a persons functionality which is attributable to a mental or physical impairment or a combination of mental and physical impairment.
  • Manifested before the person attains age 22 is likely to continue indefinitely

What are Developmental Disabilities (DD)? (Continued)

  • Results in substantial functional limitations in three or more of the following areas (self-care, receptive and expressive language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, economic self-sufficiency)
  • Reflects the person's need for a combination and sequence of special, interdisciplinary, or generic care, treatment, or other services which are lifelong or extended duration and individually planned and coordinated. (Haring & McCormick, 1986)
how prevalent are developmental disabilities
How Prevalent are Developmental Disabilities?
  • About 17% of U.S. children under 18 years of age have a developmental disability.
  • Approximately 2% of school-aged children in the U.S. have a serious developmental disability
what are the major developmental disabilities
What are the Major Developmental Disabilities?
  • Autism
  • Mental Retardation
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Seizure Disorder
what characterizes autism
What Characterizes Autism?
  • Autism is diagnosed if the person exhibits symptoms listed within each of three domains. These are
  • (1) Qualitative impairments in social interaction,
  • (2) Qualitative impairment in communication, and
  • (3) Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviors, activities, and interests
is there an autistic gene
Is There an Autistic Gene?

Duke University Margaret Pericak-Vance and her collaborators have found evidence of chromosomal defects that may be linked to autistic spectrum disorder

what is mental retardation
What is Mental Retardation?
  • Characterized both by a significantly below-average score on a test of mental ability or intelligence, and
  • By limitations in the ability to function in areas of daily life, such as communication, self-care, and getting along in social situations and school activities.
  • Mental retardation is sometimes referred to as a cognitive or intellectual disability. 
how common is mental retardation
How Common is Mental Retardation?
  • Mental retardation is the most common developmental disorder
  • About 1% of children ages 3-10 years had mental retardation
  • 1.2 of every 100 10-year-old children had mental retardation.
  • Mild mental retardation was 3 times more common than severe mental retardation.
what causes mental retardation
What Causes Mental Retardation?
  • Mental retardation can occur at anytime in the course of human development
  • It can be caused by a genetic abnormality, injury, disease, or deprivation
  • These causes can happen while in the whom, during the birthing process, or during childhood
can mental retardation be prevented
Can Mental Retardation be Prevented?
  • We do not know how to prevent most conditions that cause mental retardation
  • There are some causes that can be prevented
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is one such cause
    • Some metabolic conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU).
what is the cost of mental retardation
What is the Cost of Mental Retardation?

During the 1995-1996 school year, about 600,000 U.S. 6- to 21-year-old children with mental retardation received special educational services, at a cost of about $3.3 billion. 

what is cerebral palsy
What is Cerebral Palsy?
  • Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement or coordination caused by an abnormality of the brain
  • Almost 70% have other disabilities, primarily mental retardation
what is the lanterman act
What is the Lanterman Act?
  • Guarantees the right to services andsupports to help individuals diagnosed with developmental disabilities live an independent and productivelife.
what are the rights guaranteed under the lanterman act
What are the Rights Guaranteed Under the Lanterman Act?
  • Treatment and habilitation;
  • Dignity, privacy and humane care;
  • Participation in an appropriate program
  • Prompt medical care and treatment;
  • Religious freedom;
lanterman rights continued
Lanterman Rights (Continued)
  • Social interaction and participation in community activities;
  • Physical exercise and recreation;
  • Freedom from harm;
  • Choices in your own life;
  • The opportunity to make decisions. § 4502.1
what are regional centers
What are Regional Centers?
  • Non-profit corporate community agencies that provide services to people with developmental disabilities;
  • There are 21 regional centers in California; and
  • The main point of contact in your community between service management and the end-user.
who is eligible for regional center services
Who is Eligible for Regional Center Services?
  • People with developmental disabilities;
  • People who are at high risk of giving birth to a child with a developmental disability; and
  • Infants who have a high risk of becoming developmentally disabled.
what is a substantial disability
What is a "substantial disability?”
  • A condition that is severe enough to be a major impairment of cognitive and/or social functioning.
  • A condition that requires Interdisciplinary planning
  • A condition that requires Coordination of Services
what are the responsibilities of the regional center
What are the responsibilities of the regional center?
  • Search out and identify;
  • Provide intake and assessment;
  • Supply preventive services; and
  • Develop an Individual Program Plan (IPP).
what happens after becoming eligible
What Happens After Becoming Eligible?
  • Within 60 days after the intake and assessment a written Individual Program Plan (IPP) must be developed:
  • It should focus on you and your family, where appropriate.
  • It should promote community integration; an independent, productive, and normal life; and
  • A stable and healthy environment.
why is the ipp so important
Why is the IPP So Important?
  • It is a contract or agreement between the family of the consumer and the regional center;
  • It establishes what will be provided and what will not be provided;
  • It indicates who will provide the services; and
  • Who will pay for the services
how is the ipp developed
How is the IPP Developed?
  • Gathering information and conducting assessments; and
  • Assessments may be formal or informal
what must the regional center do to make the ipp work
What Must the Regional Center do to Make the IPP Work?
  • Getting the services and supports;
  • Providing advocacy;
  • Identifying and building circles of support;
  • Ensuring quality of services; and
  • Developing new services
what are the entitlement services and supports
What are the Entitlement Services and Supports?
  • Assessment services
  • Habilitation and training
  • Treatment and therapy
  • Preventive services
  • An array of different living arrangements
  • Community integration
  • Employment/Day programs
entitlement services and supports continued
Entitlement Services and Supports (Continued)
  • Family support services
  • Relationship services and supports
  • Emergency and crisis intervention services
  • Specialized equipment
  • Transportation services
  • Facilitation/Self-Advocacy
  • Interpreter/translator services
  • Advocacy
the history of special needs children
The History of Special Needs Children
  • Prior 1975, approximately 1 million children with disabilities were shut out of schools
  • Hundreds of thousands more were denied appropriate services
  • Ninety percent of children with developmental disabilities were housed in state institutions.
current status of special needs children
Current Status of Special Needs Children
  • Three times the number of young people with disabilities are enrolled in colleges or universities as compared to prior to 1975, and
  • Twice as many of today's 20 year olds with disabilities are working.
the unfulfilled promises to special needs children
The Unfulfilled Promises to Special Needs Children
  • Twice as many children with disabilities drop out of school.
  • Drop outs do not return to school, have difficulty finding jobs and often end up in the criminal justice system.
  • Girls who drop out often become young  unwed mothers—at a much higher rate than their non-disabled peers.
  • Many children with disabilities are excluded from the curriculum and assessments  
pl94 142 education for all handicapped children 1975
PL94-142 Education for All Handicapped Children (1975)
  • Assures that all handicapped children have available to them a free appropriate public education (FAPE) regardless of how, or how seriously, he may be handicapped
  • Mandates an individualized education program (IEP) for every student with a disability
pl 98 199 education of the handicapped act amendments 1983
PL 98-199 Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (1983)
  • Allows for federal funding to create parent training and information centers (PIC)
  • Expands services for children from birth to age 3 and the initiatives for transition services from school to adult living for students with disabilities
pl 99 372 handicapped children s protection act 1986
PL 99-372 Handicapped Children's Protection Act (1986)
  • Allows parents or guardians to be reimbursed for reasonable legal costs if they WIN a hearing or court action.
  • Requires that the case and the costs of the legal proceedings should be discussed with the lawyer prior to any legal action
what idea attempted to do
What IDEA Attempted To Do
  • Raise expectations for children with disabilities;
  • Increase parental involvement in the education of their children;
  • Ensure that regular education teachers are involved;
  • Include children with disabilities;
  • Support quality professional development.
idea accomplishments
IDEA Accomplishments
  • Full-inclusion has become the standard
  • Increased graduation rates
  • Increased employment
  • Greater college and University attendance
  • More support programs for education
  • Improved technology for all of us
idea s areas of weakness
IDEA’s Areas of Weakness
  • Eligibility and over representation of racial and ethnic minorities;
  • Funding of IDEA;
  • Monitoring and enforcement; and
  • Discipline
overrepresentation of minorities under idea
Overrepresentation of Minorities Under IDEA
  • Prevent special education placement
  • Intervene in general education
  • Increase regular educational staffing
  • Improve family centered services
  • Improved school support services
  • Increased funding for regular education
monitoring and enforcement
Monitoring and enforcement
  • Significant weaknesses exist in the current systems of monitoring and enforcement
  • More timely system focused on solid outcomes for students
  • More classroom time for teachers