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THE MUSIC SECTOR IN BOLOGNA Edited by PromoBologna with additional material from Vittorio Capecchi, Sergio Maccagnani, Elisabetta Rizzoli, Laura Reka, Lucia Chiodini
PROJECT BACKGROUND • The importance of an economy of knowledge and culture • UNESCO RECOGNITION OF BOLOGNA AS A CREATIVE CITY OF MUSIC • Creativity as a factor in economic development and as a means for attracting investment • Bologna’s long and diverse musical tradition, skills and well-established identity as an area of musical excellence • The intention of local institutions to run projects and activities to develop and enhance the sector within the territory
BOLOGNA “CREATIVE CITY OF MUSIC”: THE OPERATORS • This research project is a full and up-to-date survey of the music sector in Bologna. • The research methodology included: a) desk research using the Internet, Infoimprese (information on companies), Yellow Pages b) analysis regarding economic indicators was based on data collected from interviews and from a sample of company balance sheets archived at the Chamber of Commerce c) information on events and places was sourced from data provided by SIAE (the Society for Authors and Publishers) This research includes an initial mapping of operators that could be put into practice through direct recommendation* • * There is no database or reference source on artists, musicians, bands and orchestras. For this reason, a new ad hoc survey • would be required.
BOLOGNA’S ARTISTS a) Bologna owes its fame in Italy as “the city of music” to the numerous famous singer-songwriters and singers with close ties to the city • BIAGIO ANTONACCI, FREAK ANTONI, SAMUELE BERSANI, LUCA CARBONI, CESARE CREMONINI CRISTINA D’AVENA, LUCIO DALLA, FRANCESCO GUCCINI, CLAUDIO LOLLI, ANDREA MINGARDI, GIANNI MORANDI, VASCO ROSSI, GLI STADIO, CRISTINA ZAVALLONI These artists’ music production, live performances and TV appearances continue to add value to the sector and are fundamental in generating wealth and employment for the city b) Bologna is home to many young up-and-coming artists and bands trying to follow this tradition of success • Up to now, census data reveals that there are more than 100 bands and artists based in Bologna c) Bologna has a long-standing reputation as the “city of jazz”, still very much alive today as the city is home to artists of national fame • PAOLO FRESU, TEO CIAVARELLA, STEVE GROSSMAN, ALMA JAZZ ORCHESTRA
d) Bologna is the “city of composers and musical arrangers”, who work with the greatest Italian light music artists • FIO ZANOTTI, CELSO VALLI, MAURO MALAVASI e) Bologna is home to orchestras and ensembles of international fame, dedicated to classical and modern music • ORCHESTRA DEL TEATRO COMUNALE, ORCHESTRA MOZART, ACCADEMIA DEGLI ASTRUSI, ENSEMBLE RESPIGHI, ENSAMBLE FONTANAMIX, ORCHESTRA DELL’ASSOCIAZIONE FABIO DA BOLOGNA, ENSAMBLE DI MUSICA MEDIOEVALE MALA PUNICA, ORCHESTRA BAROCCA DI BOLOGNA f) In and around Bologna there are numerous bands and choirs, testimony to the fact that folk and religious music are still important today. • At present, census data reveals more than 18 bands and 16 choirs
MAPPING OF ASSOCIATIONS, COMPANIES AND INSTITUTIONS Census data revealed 372 operators working in the music sector within the territory. Of these, 62,1% are companies, 28,2% Associations and 9,7% Institutions. The graph does not include bands involved in training
NUMBER OF ASSOCIATIONS, COMPANIES AND INSTITUTIONS BY SECTOR 38 • Multi-specialisation of operators: 38 associations (36,2% of total associations), 29 companies (12,6% of total companies), 6 Organisations and Institutions out of 36, work in the music sector. • The companies specialise in production, management and events organisation, venue management, sales and radio • The associations specialise in research and training, management and events organisation • The Organisations and Institutions specialise in training and research, management and events organisation and management of museums and libraries
RESEARCH AND TRAINING • TRAINING INSTITUTES: ACADEMIC AND ADVANCED TRAINING COLLEGES SCHOOLS WITH MUSIC WORKSHOPS MIDDLE SCHOOLS SPECIALISED IN MUSIC MUSIC COLLEGES FOR INSTRUMENTS AND SINGING MUSIC SCHOOLS FOR SPECIAL COURSES SCHOOLS FOR TECHNICIANS INSTITUTES OFFERING COURSES FOR CHILDREN MUSIC BANDS WITH TRAINING PROGRAMMES • RESEARCH INSTITUTES
Specialisation of operators by type of course PromoBologna data, 2008 • 9 schools offering academic and advanced training courses • 18 middle schools specialising in music • The importance of courses for children, bands and technicians
MUSEUMS AND LIBRARIES • MUSEUMS • LIBRARIES
MUSIC PRODUCTION • MUSIC PUBLICATIONS • RECORD LABELS (RECORD COMPANIES) • RECORDING STUDIOS AND REHEARSAL ROOMS • MANUFACTURE OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS • OTHER PRODUCTION-RELATED SERVICES
Music Production • Out of a total of 135 operators in production-related activities, 83% are companies • Record labels are the backbone of production, both in terms of type of activity and number • The associations within the music production sector mainly focus on managing rehearsal rooms and recording studios
Music Publications Of the 23 music publications, the following stand out: • Bologna’s historical music publications • Publications under some of the most important Italian composers • Publications of some of Bologna’s great singer-songwriters • Publications linked with producers from the region • Music publications that reinforce regional traditions from Emilia Romagna • Publications relating to techno, dance and electronic music With the transformations within the record industry, the role of music editor has changed, and the borders that define their job are increasingly blurred. The distinction between music production and publications is becoming fainter. In Bologna, out of a total of 23 publications, 7 are also record labels.
Record Labels CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 45 RECORD LABELS WITHIN THE TERRITORY: Bologna’s record labels are all independent COMPANIES ASSOCIATIONS in general we found: • A cluster of electronic-dance and modern music groups in Bologna • Some labels producing classical music, recognised on a national level • A gradual process of digitalisation of the music produced
Recording Studios and Rehearsal Rooms Operators that manage rehearsal rooms and/or recording studios • Out of a total of 38 operators managing rehearsal rooms and/or recording studios, 63,2% are companies, while Associations make up 36.8% of the operators Rehearsal rooms and recording studios by management operator • Bologna has a total of 40 recording studios and 52 rehearsal rooms. 63,4% of the recording studios are managed by companies. As for the rehearsal rooms, there is an even split between companies and associations. Location of rehearsal rooms and recording studios • While recording studios are evenly distributed across the territory, rehearsal rooms are mostly concentrated within the city (74%)
Musical Instrument Manufacturing • Bologna specialises in manufacture of lutes (10 companies out of 15). Two operators specialise in the manufacture of wind instruments, one in harspichords and one in organs • The majority of the operators are not only manufacturers, but also handle maintenance, sales and the buying and selling of musical instruments. Half of the operators also carry out restoration work. Other production-related services • This category includes operators specialising in post-production audio, graphics for album promotional campaigns, rental of audio-video and lighting equipment, production of optical supports, CDs / DVDs, etc. • These operators form an initial, partial list, which nevertheless highlights the numerous possible activities branching out from production. At the same time, this list is important as it shows how difficult it is to define precise borders around the music sector.
MANAGEMENT AND EVENTS ORGANISTAION • MANAGEMENT AGENCIES • MANAGEMENT AND EVENTS ORGANISATION AGENCIES • EVENTS ORGANISATION AGENCIES • PROMOTION AGENCIES
Events Management and Organisation 2 • There are 115 operators working in the field of management and events organisation • Events organisation is the category with the largest number of operators (94 out of 115, equivalent to 81.7%) • The role of Associations is noteworthy, as they represent 60% of total operators
Management There are 9 operators in Bologna specialising in artist and band management • 5 companies, based in the Bologna area, managing some of the most important Italian singers • 2 companies working in the field of ballroom dancing and orchestras • 2 Associations that manage mostly jazz musicians Management and Events Organisation • Bologna and its province are home to the headquarters of 8 companies that manage a number of famous artists and also organise events Events Organisation THREE MAIN CATEGORIES OF EVENTS ORGANISATION: a) Companies that organise events for third parties • 3 companies, based in the Bologna area, specialising in organising tours and concerts for famous artists • 3 companies, based in the Bologna area, specialising in the organisation of big events/shows • 16 companies, based in the Bologna area, specialising in the organisation of concerts and music events
b) Associations and Institutions that organise Festivals, Reviews and Competitions in the territory (for a list of operators, please see the chapter on Events) There are 48 Associations and 7 Institutions that organise music events each year in Bologna and the province. c) Associations that organise music concerts There are 17 Associations that organise concerts periodically within the territory: • 3 specialising in metal, rock and punk • 7 specialising in classical music Press Office and Promotion There are 2 companies and 1 Association in Bologna, operating as Press Office and specialising in the promotion of artists-events exclusively within the music sector:
VENUE MANAGEMENT • COMPANIES THAT MANAGE CLUBS-DISCOS AND RISTO-MUSIC CLUBS • COMPANIES THAT MANAGE THEATRES • ASSOCIATIONS THAT MANAGE CLUBS-DISCOS
Venue Management Considering there are 313 venues where music events are held, for the purposes of this research we decided that the “venue management” category should include only those operators whose income is strictly related to an events programme that qualifies them as music venue managers a) Companies managing Risto-Music Clubs • There are 13 companies managing restaurants and bars that regularly feature a music events programme b) Companies managing clubs and discos • There are 32 companies managing clubs and discos (66.7% of total clubs and discos) One company and one assocation managing theatres Associations managing clubs and discos • There are 12 Associations managing clubs and discos within the Bologna area:
WHOLESALE SALES OF MUSIC PRODUCTS • RETAIL SALES OF MUSIC PRODUCTS • WHOLESALE SALES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS • RETAIL SALES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS SALES
Sales As regards retail sales, it should be noted that only specialist shops have been included, while large stores (hypermarkets, bookshops) that sell a wide variety of products have been excluded • Out of a total of 29 companies involved in sales, most are focused on retail sales of music products and musical instruments • Almost half of the total number of companies sell musical instruments • There are a considerable number of retailers selling CDs, specialising in classical, hard rock and electronic music
RADIO BROADCASTING • RADIO
Radio Stations Census data reveals 20 radio stations based in the Bologna area Main genres of music featured on the radio • Focus on 60s / 70s /80s music and commercial music • Significant number of radio stations specialising in dance/electronic and alternative music
ESTIMATED VALUE OF THE WHOLE SECTOR • In 2007 the music sector in the province of Bologna generated total wealth of at least 60 million euro • the market generated revenue in excess of 160 million euro • the sector provides employment for no fewer than 1600 workers, including employees, freelancers and partners • Between 2006 and 2007, the sector’s added value grew by almost 6 million euro If we consider the operators excluded from the total estimate, the above figures are to be seen as a minimum threshold
EVENTS & MUSIC CONSUMPTION MUSIC VENUES According to SIAE data, 313 venues in the Bologna area hosted more than 5 music events in 2007 SIAE 2007 data compiled by PromoBologna • Multifunctional venues account for 74% of total venues hosting music events in 2007 • Social clubs and community centres denote the importance of places for social gathering, especially for the elderly, within the territory • As far as the other categories of venue are concerned, there is an even spread in the Bologna area with no particular focus on any one category
MUSIC OFFER CLASSIFICATION OF EVENTS Events focused on listening to music, which attract an “aware” audience that deliberately chooses to take part “CULTURAL” EVENTS • LIGHT MUSIC CONCERTS • JAZZ CONCERTS • CLASSICAL MUSIC CONCERTS Events focused on dancing, where music is not the only variable encouraging people to take part, but where other factors such as socialising and social gathering take on a primary role ENTERTAINMENT-RELATED EVENTS • LIVE CONCERTS WITH ORCHESTRAS • RECORDED MUSIC EVENTS
Number of events subdivided by music genre and type of venue: SIAE 2007 data, compiled by PromoBologna In total in 2007, there were 9,898 music events held in 313 venues
MUSIC CONSUMPTION Number of spectators by music genre and type of venue SIAE 2007 data, compiled by PromoBologna • In total in 2007 more than 2,100,000 people took part in music events in 313 venues in the Bologna area • Entertainment-related music accounts for more than 77% of total music consumption in the Bologna area. • Analysing the data on the basis of live or recorded music split, only 30.7% of spectators took part in recorded music events, while 69.3% preferred live music, both for entertainment and for “cultural” purposes. • Within the “cultural” music category, light music is the most popular genre in Bologna. In fact, 68.6% of people prefer light music.
Average number of spectators per event SIAE 2007 data, compiled by PromoBologna • Data shows that music events held in Bologna and province attracted an average of 214 spectators. • As regards music genre, it is interesting to note that while in absolute terms entertainment music has the highest number of events and spectators, “cultural” music genres are still the most appealing in the city. Light music and classical music boast the highest number of spectators in relation to the number of events. Entertainment-related music has a lower average number of spectators than the overall average, which denotes that the entertainment music offer is highly fragmented and consumption is relatively low compared to the offer.
MUSIC CONSUMPTION IN THE MAIN ITALIAN PROVINCES Number of spectators by music genre in the main Italian provinces SIAE 2007 data, compiled by PromoBologna • In absolute terms, Rome and Milan are the top ranking Italian provinces in terms of numbers of musical spectators in 2007 as regards all music genres • The province of Bologna ranks sixth out of the Italian provinces in terms of total numbers of spectators in 2007 • The Bologna area ranks third in terms of numbers of jazz spectators
Index of spectators in relation to number of residents by province and by music genre Elaborazioni PromoBologna su dati SIAE 2007 • Bologna is the top-ranking Italian province for jazz and live music for dancing, in relation to its population • The Bologna area ranks second for recorded music for dancing, in relation to its population • The Bologna area ranks fifth for light music and classical music, in relation to its population
MUSIC EVENTS NUMBER AND TYPE OF EVENT Data compiled by PromoBologna, 2008 Census data for the Bologna area reveals 112 events, including festivals, reviews, concert seasons and competitions. LOCATION OF THE EVENTS Data compiled by PromoBologna, 2008 58% of the events are held within the city of Bologna, 35.7% within the Province and 6.3% in the province and city.
EVENTS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR Data compiled by PromoBologna, 2008 Events are spread evenly throughout the year MUSIC GENRES AND EXCELLENCES Data compiled by PromoBologna, 2008