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PROJECT ORGANISATION. Year 3 Project Management Dr. Margaret Nelson. LECTURE OUTLINE. Types Background Structure Culture. TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS. RISE OF THE PM CONCEPT. an organisational innovation a specialist co-ordinator of the process constructing large, complex systems

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Project organisation l.jpg

PROJECT ORGANISATION

Year 3 Project Management

Dr. Margaret Nelson


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LECTURE OUTLINE

  • Types

  • Background

  • Structure

  • Culture


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TYPES OF ORGANISATIONS


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RISE OF THE PM CONCEPT

  • an organisational innovation

    • a specialist co-ordinator of the process

  • constructing large, complex systems

    • railways

    • aerospace

  • the cold war programmes

    • Polaris/ Atlas

  • resource bases and project coordinators


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RESOURCE BASES & PROJECT CO-ORDINATORS


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CLIENT RESPONSIBILITIES

  • Promoter

    • defining need

  • Financier

    • obtaining capital

  • Decision-maker

    • appropriately timed decisions

  • Recruiter

    • mobilising appropriate resource bases

  • The problem of managerial capabilities

    • in-house capability

    • executive project management


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client

client

PM

dept

executive project manager

project coalition

project coalition

CLIENT PM OPTIONS


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PROJECT ORGANISATION IN CONSTRUCTION

  • Little coordination at the level of the project as a whole

  • Mixing project and resource base management responsibilities

  • Poor training

  • Resource bases in the project coalition


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PM STRUCTURES

  • Challenges to Organizing Projects

    • The uniqueness and short duration of projects relative to ongoing longer-term organizational activities

    • The multidisciplinary and cross-functional nature of projects creates authority and responsibility dilemmas

  • Choosing an Appropriate Project Management Structure

    • The best system balances the needs of the project with the needs of the organization



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FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION

  • Different segments of the project are delegated to respective functional units

  • Coordination is maintained through normal management channels

  • Used when the interest of one functional area dominates the project or one functional area has a dominant interest in the project’s success


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FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION (2)


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Advantages

No Structural Change

Flexibility

In-Depth Expertise

Easy Post-Project Transition

Disadvantages

Lack of Focus

Poor Integration

Slow

Lack of Ownership

FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION (3)


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DEDICATED TEAMS

  • Teams operate as separate units under the leadership of a full-time project manager

  • In a projectized organization where projects are the dominant form of business, functional departments are responsible for providing support for its teams



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Advantages

Simple

Fast

Cohesive

Cross-Functional Integration

Disadvantages

Expensive

Internal Strife

Limited Technological Expertise

Difficult Post-Project Transition

DEDICATED TEAMS (3)



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MATRIX STRUCTURE

  • Hybrid organizational structure (matrix) is overlaid on the normal functional structure.

    • Two chains of command (functional and project)

    • Project participants report simultaneously to both functional and project managers.

  • Matrix structure optimizes the use of resources.

    • Allows for participation on multiple projects while performing normal functional duties.

    • Achieves a greater integration of expertise and project requirements.


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MATRIX STRUCTURE (2)


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RESPONSIBILITIES IN A MATRIX STRUCTURE

Project Manager Negotiated Issues Functional Manager

What has to be done? Who will do the task? How will it be done?

When should the task be done? Where will the task be done?

How much money is available to Why will the task be done? How will the project involvementdo the task? impact normal functional activities?

How well has the total project Is the task satisfactorily How well has the functional been done? completed? input been integrated?


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DIFFERENT MATRIX FORMS

  • Functional (also Weak or Lightweight) Form

    • Matrices in which the authority of the functional manager predominates and the project manager has indirect authority.

  • Balance (or Middleweight) Form

    • The traditional matrix form in which the project manager sets the overall plan and the functional manager determines how work to be done.

  • Strong (Heavyweight) Form

    • Resembles a project team in which the project manager has broader control and functional departments act as subcontractors to the project.


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Advantages

Efficient

Strong Project Focus

Easier Post-Project Transition

Flexible

Disadvantages

Dysfunctional Conflict

Infighting

Stressful

Slow

MATRIX STRUCTURE (3)


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NETWORK ORGANISATIONS

  • An alliance of several organizations for the purpose of creating products or services.

    • A “hub” or “core” firm with strong core competencies outsources key activities to a collaborative cluster of satellite organizations.


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MOUNTAIN BIKE NETWORK PROJECT


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Advantages

Cost Reduction

High Level of Expertise

Flexible

Disadvantages

Coordination of Breakdowns

Loss of Control

Conflict

NETWORK ORGANISATIONS (2)


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RATED EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT PROJECT STRUCTURES BY TYPE

Source: Larson, E. W., and Gobeli, D. H., “Matrix Management: Contradictions and Insights,” California Management Review, vol. 29, no. 4 (Summer 1987), p. 137.


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CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE PM STRUCTURE

  • Organization (Form) Considerations

    • How important is the project to the firm’s success?

    • What percentage of core work involves projects?

    • What level of resources (human and physical) are available?


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CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE PM STRUCTURE (2)

  • Project Considerations

    • Size of project

    • Strategic importance

    • Novelty and need for innovation

    • Need for integration (number of departments involved)

    • Environmental complexity (number of external interfaces)

    • Budget and time constraints

    • Stability of resource requirements


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ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE

  • A system of shared norms, beliefs, values, and assumptions which bind people together, thereby creating shared meanings.

  • The “personality” of the organization that sets it apart from other organizations.

    • Provides a sense of identify to its members.

    • Helps legitimize the management system of the organization.

    • Clarifies and reinforces standards of behavior.


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KEY DIMENSIONS DEFINING AN ORGANISATION’S CULTURE


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IDENTIFYING CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • Study the physical characteristics of an organization – architecture, office layout, decor

  • Read about the organization – Public documents e.g. annual reports, internal newsletters, vision statements

  • Observe how people interact within the organization – pace, language, meetings, issues discussed, decision making style, communication patterns, rituals

  • Interpret stories and folklore surrounding the organization – stories, anecdotes, heroines, heroes, villiains


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IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE

  • Challenges for Project Managers in navigating Organizational Cultures

    • Interacting with the culture and subcultures of the parent organization

    • Interacting with the project’s clients or customer organizations

    • Interacting with other organizations connected to the project


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MECHANISMS FOR MAINTAINING ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE


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READING LIST

  • Gray, C. F. and Larson, E. W. (2006), Project Management: The Managerial Process, 3rd Edition, NY: McGraw Hill/Irwin.

  • Lock, D. (2001), The Essentials of Project Management, 2nd Edition, Hampshire: Gower. Pp 31-54.

  • Reiss, G. (1995), Project Management Demystified: Today’s Tools and Techniques, 2nd Edition, Winch, G, Lecture Notes

  • Walker, A. (2002), Project Management in Construction, 4th Edition, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Chapters 1-4, 11 & 12.

  • http://www.ce.cmu.edu/pmbook/

  • http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/winch/case.pdf

  • http://www.maxwideman.com/guests/index.htm


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Any Questions?

Next Lecture

Various Approaches to Project Mgt


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