leveraging human capabilities in advanced user interfaces n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Leveraging Human Capabilities in Advanced User Interfaces PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Leveraging Human Capabilities in Advanced User Interfaces

play fullscreen
1 / 63
Download Presentation

Leveraging Human Capabilities in Advanced User Interfaces - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

gali
159 Views
Download Presentation

Leveraging Human Capabilities in Advanced User Interfaces

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Leveraging Human Capabilitiesin Advanced User Interfaces Mary Czerwinski Sr. Researcher Microsoft Research

  2. Thanks to my Colleagues • Desney Tan • George Robertson • Greg Smith • Patrick Baudisch • Brian Meyers IEEE HCC Keynote

  3. Introduction • Overview of user-centered design and process • Exploration of 3D UI designs that leverage human capabilities • Examination of animation in UI • Exploration of large displays and gender differences in 3D navigation • Conclusion IEEE HCC Keynote

  4. User-Centered Design • Start from existing user problem • Ethnographic work, lab studies or literature • Design innovation and brainstorming • Psychological and human-computer interaction (hci) principles-driven! • Prototype -> show to users -> iterate • Extend principles, publish findings to hci community IEEE HCC Keynote

  5. Progress Chart • Overview of user-centered design and process • Exploration of 3D UI designs that leverage human capabilities • Examination of animation in UI • Exploration of large displays and gender differences in 3D navigation • Conclusion IEEE HCC Keynote

  6. 3D UI Projects • Data Mountain (UIST 98) • Task Gallery (CHI 2000) • Polyarchy visualization (shipped June 2003) • Scalable Fabric • Large displays, optical flow and wider fields of view (CHI 2001, 2002, 2003) IEEE HCC Keynote

  7. Data Mountain • User problem—can’t use IE Favorites • Leverages spatial memory and visual recognition • “Strongest cue- • relative size” Subject Layout of 100 Pages IEEE HCC Keynote

  8. Data Mountain Usability • Study #1 (Compare with IE4 Favorites) • Reliably faster (26%) • Study #2 (Longevity and Thumbnails) • After 6 months, no performance change • Images help, but are not required • Studies #3 & 4 (Implicit Query) • Faster retrieval if similar pages highlighted IEEE HCC Keynote

  9. Task Gallery • User problem: task switching • Task management • Simple, forward-back navigation • Tasks laid out spatially on floor, ceiling, walls • Simple task switch • Leverages spatial memory, visual attention and recognition IEEE HCC Keynote

  10. Task Gallery • Simultaneous viewing of multiple windows • Simple shift select • Smart arrangement • Use 3D to provide uniform scaling • Saves user from having to manage layouts IEEE HCC Keynote

  11. Progress Chart • Overview of user-centered design and process • Exploration of 3D UI designs that leverage human capabilities • Examination of animation in UI • Exploration of large displays and gender differences in 3D navigation • Conclusion IEEE HCC Keynote

  12. Animation Effectiveness • Tversky et al. (2001) • Animation not always useful • Info Vis Community • Robertson, Card & Mackinlary (‘91): Cone Tree node transitions involved rotations for maintaining context • Bartram (‘98): animation evoked an emergent property of grouping when multiple, similar motions occur • Bederson & Boltman (‘98): 1 sec. animation significantly reduced errors and task times IEEE HCC Keynote

  13. Polyarchy Visualization • Multiple Intersecting Hierarchies • Solves user problems of: • Shows multiple foci at once • Shows item relationships in context • Manages viewing multiple hierarchies • Key concept: visual pivot • Shipped June 2003 IEEE HCC Keynote

  14. Two Styles of Visual Pivot • Rotating • Sliding IEEE HCC Keynote

  15. Rotation around Horizontal Axis IEEE HCC Keynote

  16. Sliding Animation IEEE HCC Keynote

  17. Proffitt and Kaiser (’93) • Users analyze animations into relative (rotation) and common (translation) motion components • Secondly, rotation and translation motions have different perceptual significance • Rotations define 3D form, while translations define observer-relative displacements • Suggests sliding pivot perceived as observer-relative and rotating perceived as defining 3D form (less useful for our tasks?) IEEE HCC Keynote

  18. Polyarchy VisualizationUser Studies • Study 3: Animation Styles and Speeds • Six animation styles: Picked two best • Twice as fast as study 2: Still too slow • Study 4: Prototype: 2D vs 3D • Identified most effective animation style • Identified best speed range—0.5 sec. • Study 5: Examined complexity of query and sliding v. stacked animations IEEE HCC Keynote

  19. Study 4: Animation StylesSliding versus Rotating IEEE HCC Keynote

  20. Study 4: Animation Styles Learning Effects IEEE HCC Keynote

  21. Study 4: Animation Timing IEEE HCC Keynote

  22. Progress Chart • Overview of user-centered design and process • Exploration of 3D UI designs that leverage human capabilities • Examination of animation in UI • Exploration of large displays and gender differences in 3D navigation • Conclusion IEEE HCC Keynote

  23. Ignore Science Fiction at Our Peril Workstation in the world of the Matrix IEEE HCC Keynote

  24. Large Display Surfaces are Here Workstation in the real world IEEE HCC Keynote

  25. Why A Larger Display Surface? • Productivity benefits 15-30% (despite OS issues) • Users prefer more display surface • Prices dropping fast • Footprints getting smaller IEEE HCC Keynote

  26. Use Multimon No Multimon 32% 30% Plan to Use Multimon 38% Multimon Trend is Growing (Jon Peddie Research Dec, 2002 N=6652) IEEE HCC Keynote

  27. 2004 Large Monitor ASP Projections 16:9 x 22” Diagonal 20”Diagonal 2 x 17” (30” Diagonal) $1000 Relative Pricing 2 x 15” (26” Diagonal) 17”Diagonal 15”Diagonal Single Multiple Wide IEEE HCC Keynote Note: All Prices are for Liquid Crystal Displays Source for Single Panel Pricing: IDC and Display Search

  28. Large Display User Experience, MSR • Large display surfaces fundamentally change user interaction • Focus on input, visualization and windows management • Large display surfaces provide non-linear productivity increases • Additional space has different utility • E.g. Focal/peripheral displays provide different cues IEEE HCC Keynote

  29. Windows and Task Management Issues Emerge • Larger displays = more open windows • Multimon users arrange windows spatially • TaskBar does not scale: • Aggregation model not task-based • Users can’t operate on groups of related windows IEEE HCC Keynote

  30. INPUT: Drag ‘n Pop • Problems: • Large displays create long distance mouse movement • Drag ‘n Pop brings proxies of targets to the user from across display surfaces IEEE HCC Keynote

  31. Scalable Fabric (for Large Displays) • Beyond Minimization • Large display users keep more windows open • With so much screen real estate, why minimize? • Manage tasks using visual recognition and spatial memory • Central focus area • Periphery: windows scaled • Cluster of windows = task IEEE HCC Keynote

  32. Women Take a Wider View (CHI 2002) • Grew from work designing and evaluating 3D virtual navigation techniques • On regular desktop display: • Men performed significantly better than women • On exploratory widescreen display: • Overall improvement for all users • Surprising finding: • Gender gap disappeared - Males and females performed equally on widescreen display IEEE HCC Keynote

  33. Related Work • Formation of cognitive maps while navigating 3D virtual worlds • Spatial abilities • Artifacts (maps, landmarks,…) • Gender differences in spatial ability and navigation strategies • Most report male advantages, especially in virtual environments IEEE HCC Keynote

  34. Related Work: Optical Flow • Changing retinal image as we move through the environment • Aids perception of environmental structure IEEE HCC Keynote

  35. Related Work: Optical Flow • Changing retinal image as we move through the environment • Aids perception of environmental structure IEEE HCC Keynote

  36. What we know about Optical Flow • Optical flow benefits heading perception in active navigation • Shown for fields of view up to 90 degrees • Hypothesized that effectiveness of optical flow depends on spatial ability • [Cutmore et al. 2000] • Gender unexplored IEEE HCC Keynote

  37. Our Hypotheses • Optical flow cues help all users form better cognitive maps when navigating 3D virtual environments • Better optical flow cues help women more than men in cognitive map formation • Wider displays offer even better optical flow cues IEEE HCC Keynote

  38. Dsharp Display 43" 11" IEEE HCC Keynote

  39. Task: General Description • Learning: User controls movement along path through virtual 3D maze • Testing: Remember path traveled IEEE HCC Keynote

  40. Virtual Maps • 14 rooms (6 straight ahead, 8 turns) • Some paths go through same room twice For example: IEEE HCC Keynote

  41. Cognitive Map Learning • Use arrow keys to go through green door • Determine if path crosses itself • Remember full path IEEE HCC Keynote

  42. Cognitive Map Memory Test • Tested on memory for maze • Forward test and backward test • Measured task time & number of correct doors opened on first attempt • Same controls as in learning phase, but without green door guides • Given feedback IEEE HCC Keynote

  43. Experimental Design Female Male Small FOV: 100 degrees Large FOV: 120 degrees Optical Flow Absent Optical Flow Present IEEE HCC Keynote

  44. Experimental Procedure • Paper folding test of spatial ability • 1 practice trial + 4 test trials • Satisfaction questionnaire IEEE HCC Keynote

  45. Benefits of Optical Flow IEEE HCC Keynote

  46. Optical Flow Helps All Users in Forward Test Forward Backward IEEE HCC Keynote

  47. Optical Flow Benefits Females More in the Forward Test Females Males IEEE HCC Keynote

  48. Other Results • No effects for field of view • No effects for spatial ability measure • Satisfaction ratings matched performance results IEEE HCC Keynote

  49. Conclusion • Optical flow cues help all users form better cognitive maps when navigating 3D virtual environments • Better optical flow cues help women more than men in cognitive map formation • Unexplained by biases in spatial ability • Wider displays offer even better optical flow cues • 100 degree field of view seems sufficient IEEE HCC Keynote

  50. Information Voyeurism: Social Impact of Large Displays • Exploit social cues induced by physical size: • Help people communicate • Increase productivity on individual tasks • Must quantify in order to exploit • Information on large displays more public • Ask user? Cannot guarantee accuracy • Video? Cannot disambiguate glance from reading IEEE HCC Keynote