Klinefelter’s Syndrome. AP Biology 2 3 rd period Michelle Xu & Alice Thai. What is Klinefelter’s Syndrome? . Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic disorder that only affects males.
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Klinefelter’s Syndrome AP Biology 2 3rd period Michelle Xu & Alice Thai
What is Klinefelter’s Syndrome? • Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic disorder that only affects males. • It occurs when a boy is born with one or more extra X chromosomes, which causes a boy to produce less testosterone than a normal boy. . • Due to having an extra X chromosome, the male may possibly have some physical traits unusual for males.
What is Klinefelter’s Syndrome? • Instead of an XY sex chromosome pattern that most males have, these males have an XXY pattern. • Some people with Kleinfelter’s consider themselves to be transgender, intersexed, or transsexual, due to having a more feminine appearance and/or feminine emotions.
Other Names for Klinefelter’s: • 47, XXY • XXY Syndrome • XXY Trisomy • Or 3+X Chromosomes with Y Frequency of Klinefelter’s: • Approximately 1 in 500 to 1,000.
How do you get Klinefelter’s Syndrome? • An extra X chromosome most often occurs when the genetic material in the eggs or the sperm splits unevenly. • It’s a random event during the formation of reproductive cells • An error in cell division called nondisjunction results in a reproductive cell with an abnormal number of chromosomes. • It’s diagnosed in adulthood by using a karyotype.
Symptoms of Klinefelter’s Syndrome Physical Symptoms: • Long legs • Wide hips • Enlarged breasts • Sparse body hair • Small testicles • Less muscular • Weaker bones
Symptoms of Klinefelter’s Syndrome Language Symptoms: • Learn to talk late • Trouble expressing thoughts and needs • Problems reading • Trouble processing what they hear Other Symptoms: • Normal sex lives, but cannot father children • Produce much less testosterone
Treatment of Klinefelter’s Syndrome • Males with Klinefelter’s Syndrome can be given testosterone therapy. • If given around the age of puberty, it can help a boy have normal body development. • A infertility specialist may be able to help a male with Klinefelter’s syndrome to get a woman pregnant.
History of Klinefelter’s Syndrome • In 1942, Klinefelter’s was discovered by Dr. Harry Klinefelter, along with other doctors at General Hospital in Boston. • Doctors reported a group of males with “enlarged breasts, sparse facial and body hair, small testes, and inability to produce sperm.” • By the late 1950’s, researches discovered that these men had an extra sex chromosome thus having the pattern XXY.
Lifestyle with Klinefelter’s Syndrome As a Baby, Child, and Teen: • May sit up, crawl, and walk later than other infants. • Tend to be taller and have less muscle control than other boys. • May have language problems • Tend to be quiet and undemanding. • Entering puberty, these males don’t make as much testosterone.
Lifestyle with Klinefelter’s Syndrome As an Adult: • Look similar to normal males, but are often taller. • Likely to have health problems such as breast cancer, vein diseases, tooth decay, and autoimmune disorders. • Cannot father children due to infertility. • May have a harder time doing work that involves reading and writing. • Normal social life with friends and family.
Caroline Cossey (XXXY) • Cossey was raised as a boy, but changed lifestyle to live as a girl. • She became a famous model. • She underwent sex-reassignment surgery. • Cossey was a James Bond girl in the movie “For Your Eyes Only.”
Lili Elbe • Elbe allegedly had Klinefelter’s. • She was one of the first identifiable recipients of male to female sex reassignment surgery. • Elbe was a fashion model. • She was transsexual and underwent experimental surgeries, her first surgery was orchiectomy (removal of testicles). • Elbe was written about in David Ebershoff’s best seller, The Danish Girl.
Works Cited • http://men.webmd.com/tc/klinefelter-syndrome-topic-overview • http://www.livestrong.com/article/30547-testosterone-treatment-klinefelters-syndrome-work/ • http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/klinefelter_syndrome.cfm • http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/klinefelter-syndrome • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000382.htm • http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/klinefelter-syndrome • http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/klinefelter/ • http://genetics.emedtv.com/klinefelter-syndrome/history-of-klinefelter-syndrome.html • http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/biblio/articles/2000to2004/2004-ais-and-klinefelters.html • http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0876302/bio • http://sexual-communication.wikispaces.com/Lili+Elbe