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A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition. Chapter 11 The X Window System. Objectives. Describe the X Window System and its client/server model Understand the role of the Window Manager Understand desktops such as GNOME and KDE Start the X Window System. Objectives (continued).

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a guide to unix using linux fourth edition

A Guide to Unix Using Linux Fourth Edition

Chapter 11

The X Window System

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the X Window System and its client/server model
  • Understand the role of the Window Manager
  • Understand desktops such as GNOME and KDE
  • Start the X Window System

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Interact with the X Window System and use its components
  • Use Nautilus and Konqueror for file management
  • Run an application
  • Configure a desktop
  • Shut down a system from the desktop

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

what is the x window system
What is the X Window System?
  • X Window System: GUI that runs on Linux and many UNIX operating systems
    • Two popular desktops:
      • GNOME
      • KDE
    • Originally developed at MIT
      • Currently in its eleventh version: X11
      • Current release is R7.2.0 (X11R7)
    • XFree86: free version of X11 that was ported from non-PC-based UNIX computers to run on PCs
      • Compatible with Linux

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

x window clients and servers
X Window Clients and Servers
  • Use X Window System to run programs stored:
    • On your local computer
    • Over a network
  • X Window System uses a client/server model:
    • X server: underlying desktop system from which you run a program
    • X client: system that hosts and executes the program
  • X server approaches for Windows-based PCs:
    • X-Win32, X-Win32 Flash, and Exceed

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

using window managers
Using Window Managers
  • X Window System is layered and built from components
    • At top layer is the Window Manager
      • Window Manager: controls how windows appear and how users control them
  • Many Window Managers have been developed
    • Most of them are available for free

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

using a desktop
Using a Desktop
  • Desktop: provides GUI appearance, software applications, and other resources that you use
    • Works hand-in-hand with a Window Manager
    • Enables you to create and place icons in your screen’s workspace
      • Is customizable
    • Most popular UNIX/Linux desktops:
      • GNOME
      • KDE

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

using gnome
Using GNOME
  • GNOME: GNU Network Object Model Environment
    • Product of the GNU Project
    • Desktop environment that is used along with a Window Manager
    • Installed by default in Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux
    • Very user-friendly
    • Very popular
    • Compatible with X11
    • Compatible with a variety of Window Managers

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

using kde
Using KDE
  • KDE is an alternative to GNOME
    • Can be installed along with GNOME
    • Is more popular internationally than GNOME
    • Offers a broader range of drag-and-drop capabilities
    • Intended to provide UNIX/Linux users with a graphical point-and-click experience
    • Compatible with X11
    • Compatible with a variety of Window Managers

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

starting the x window system
Starting the X Window System
  • startx is intended for a computer or login session that does not automatically boot into X Window

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

configuring linux to automatically start the x window system
Configuring Linux to Automatically Start the X Window System
  • To change runlevel, modify /etc/inittab
    • From: id:3:initdefault:
    • To: id:5:initdefault:

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with the x window system using gnome
Interacting with the X Window System Using GNOME

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with windows
Interacting with Windows

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

more about the window menu button
More About the Window Menu Button
  • Options of Window Menu button (when clicked):
    • Minimize (and Maximize/Unmaximize)
    • On Top
    • Move
    • Resize
    • Close
    • Always on Visible Workspace/Only on This Workspace
    • Move to Workspace Right (and Left)
    • Move to Another Workspace

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with the panel
Interacting with the Panel
  • The Panel in Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux appears, by default, at the top of the desktop
    • Another Panel is at the bottom
    • Top panel:
    • Bottom panel:
      • On left side: button to hide all windows
      • On right side: access to the four workspaces

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with the panel continued
Interacting with the Panel (continued)
  • Applications menu:
    • Submenus and programs that you can open
  • Places menu has options to:
    • Open your home folder
    • Access items on desktop
    • Open storage devices and file systems on computer
    • Create a CD/DVD
    • Access network servers and resources
    • Perform a fast search for a specific item
    • Access recently opened documents

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with the panel continued1
Interacting with the Panel (continued)
  • System menu options:
    • A submenu for setting preferences on the computer
    • A submenu for administering the computer
    • An option to obtain help
    • An option to find out about GNOME
    • An option to learn more about the OS
    • An option to lock screen
    • An option to log off
    • An option to suspend the computer’s operation
    • An option to shut down the computer

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

using nautilus
Using Nautilus
  • Nautilus: GNOME’s file management tool
  • Used to:
    • View files and folders
    • Create new folders
    • Delete and move files and folders
    • Copy and paste files and folders
    • Configure permissions
    • Open a file or start a program
    • Access the Internet
    • Set a bookmark (to a file, folder, or Internet location)

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

using nautilus continued
Using Nautilus (continued)

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

configuring the desktop
Configuring the Desktop
  • You can customize many aspects of the X Window System
  • Examples:
    • Change background image
    • Specify screensaver
    • Configure items on the Panel
    • Add applets to the Panel
    • Add a new Panel to desktop

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

changing the background
Changing the Background
  • Background: desktop area behind all windows and icons
    • Is customizable:
      • Can change color
      • Can specify a wallpaper to be used as background
    • To change background in GNOME:
      • Right-click a blank area in the desktop
      • Select Change Desktop Background

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

changing the screensaver
Changing the Screensaver
  • Use screensaver to deter unauthorized use of a server or workstation by requiring a password
  • In Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
    • Click System menu
    • Point to Preferences
    • Click Screensaver
  • In SUSE:
    • Click Computer menu
    • Click Control Center
    • Click Screensaver

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

configuring the panel
Configuring the Panel
  • GNOME Panel can be configured in several ways:
    • Add an icon or applet to the Panel
    • Rearrange placement of icons
    • Add programs you have written
    • Move the Panel to another location:
      • Move pointer to a blank area of Panel
      • Drag and drop Panel to another location

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

configuring the panel continued
Configuring the Panel (continued)

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

adding a menu to the panel
Adding a Menu to the Panel
  • You can add a menu within the Applications or Computer menu directly to the Panel
  • Example:
    • Put the Office menu on the Panel

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

adding a new panel
Adding a New Panel
  • General steps:
    • Right-click an open space on an existing Panel
    • Click New Panel
    • If you want to change the location of the new Panel, click and drag it to the new location
    • Right-click the new Panel, click Add to Panel, and select what you want to place on the Panel

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

shutting down from the gnome desktop
Shutting Down from the GNOME Desktop
  • Proper shutdown is important to ensure that all files are closed and to protect file system integrity
  • In Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
    • Click System menu
    • Click Shut Down
  • In SUSE:
    • Click Computer menu
    • Click Log Out
    • Click Shut down

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with the x window system using kde
Interacting with the X Window System Using KDE

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with konqueror
Interacting with Konqueror

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

interacting with kicker
Interacting with Kicker
  • Kicker is similar to the Panel in GNOME
  • Can be customized in several ways:
    • Relocate it, add/remove applets, add panels, etc.

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

configuring the kde desktop
Configuring the KDE Desktop
  • You can customize the KDE desktop in X Window
  • Examples:
    • Change the desktop background
    • Specify a screensaver
    • Create additional desktops
      • Beyond the four set up by default

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

changing the background in kde
Changing the Background in KDE
  • Right-click unused desktop area  Configure Desktop

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

configuring the screensaver
Configuring the Screensaver
  • KDE offers a huge selection of screensavers
  • Use Configure – KDesktop utility to choose a screensaver
    • For security reasons, set it up so that it requires a password after it starts
  • Use Screen Saver option to set up your screensaver preferences

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

configuring additional desktops
Configuring Additional Desktops
  • KDE is set by default to enable four desktops
    • Accessible through Kicker
    • Configurable to fewer than four or up to 20 desktops
      • Use the Configure – KDesktop utility
      • Then, click Multiple Desktops in side pane

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

shutting down from the kde desktop
Shutting Down from the KDE Desktop
  • Proper shutdown of KDE desktop is important
    • Ensures all of your open program and system files are properly closed and kept intact
  • General steps:
    • Click the K Menu
    • Click Log Out
    • Click End Current Session or Turn Off Computer

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

openoffice org and open source software
OpenOffice.org and Open Source Software
  • OpenOffice.org: suite of office productivity software
    • Open source software
    • Included in many UNIX/Linux distributions
    • Also available for Windows and Mac OS systems
    • Program elements include:
      • Writer
      • Calc
      • Impress
      • Draw
      • Math
      • Base

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

summary
Summary
  • X Window System runs on UNIX/Linux systems
    • Window Manager: layer with which user interacts
    • Use startx to start the X Window System
      • Modify /etc/inittab to have it start automatically
  • GNOME environment is a popular desktop
    • The Panel provides access to menus, icons, Workspace Switcher, and other utilities
    • Nautilus is a graphical application for managing directories/files and for navigating the file system
    • Desktop background and other elements are customizable

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • KDE is another popular desktop
    • Similar in functionality to GNOME
    • Major components include:
      • Icons
      • Kicker
        • Similar to the Panel in GNOME
      • Windows
      • Desktop area on which to work
    • Konqueror: application for managing files/folders
    • Desktop background, screensaver, and other features are customizable

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

command summary
Command Summary

A Guide to Unix Using Linux, Fourth Edition

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