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Phy 102: Fundamentals of Physics II. Chapter 12 Lecture Notes. Robert Hooke (1635-1702). English chemist, mathematician, physicist, and inventor (the spiral spring) England’s 1 st experimental scientist. Founder of many scientific fields, including: Microscopy - Microbiology

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phy 102 fundamentals of physics ii

Phy 102: Fundamentals of Physics II

Chapter 12 Lecture Notes

robert hooke 1635 1702
Robert Hooke (1635-1702)
  • English chemist, mathematician,physicist, and inventor (the spiral spring)
  • England’s 1st experimental scientist.
  • Founder of many scientific fields, including:
    • Microscopy - Microbiology
    • Meteorology - geology
    • Earth sciences
  • Gained acclaim for writing the 1st microscopy textbook
  • Known for his creating brilliant ideas but not following them up to develop complete theories
  • Contemporary (& scientific enemy!) of Isaac Newton
    • Hooke claimed Newton “stole” many of his ideas including his theory of universal gravitation and a particle theory of optics
    • Hooke was known for his frequent and bitter disputes with fellow scientists
solids
Solids
  • Substance with definite shape & definite volume
  • Classifications of solids
    • Crystalline (regular)
    • Amorphous (irregular)
  • Types of solids
    • Ionic
    • Covalent
    • Metallic
    • Van der Waals
density
Density
  • A physical property of matter
  • The relationship between a substance’s mass and the volume of space it occupies
  • Depends on
    • Mass of the atoms/molecules
    • How tightly the atoms are packed together
  • To calculate density:

Density = mass/volume

or

D = m/V

  • Units are
    • SI: kg/m3
    • Other: g/cm3 (or g/mL), kg/L, g/L
elasticity
Elasticity
  • Elastic materials have 2 characteristics:
    • They change shape when a deforming force acts on an object (e.g. compress or stretch)
    • They return to the original shape when the deforming force is removed
  • The force (F) required to deform an elastic material is proportional to the amount of deformation the object experiences (Dx):

F ~ Dx{This is called Hooke’s Law}

  • Elastic materials can be stretched/compressed past a point (called the elastic limit) beyond which Hooke’s Law no longer applies (& they stay permanently deformed)
tension compression
Tension & Compression
  • Something pulled on (stretched) is referred to as being under tension
  • Something pushed in is in compression
  • When something is bent:
    • the outside part of it is in tension
    • the inner part is in compression
    • Somewhere between these regions is an interface called the neutral layer (where neither tension nor compression occurs)
  • Steel girders are designed in “I” shapes to that maximum material is at tension/compression regions & minimal material is located at the neutral layer (to maximize stretch & minimize weight)
arches
Arches

An inexpensive restaurant specializing

in fried foods

scaling
Scaling
  • An object’s strength is proportional to its cross-sectional area (A):

Strength ~ A (measured in m2 or cm2)

  • An object’s mass is proportional to its volume (V):

Weight ~ V (in m3 or cm3)

  • As objects increase in size, volume & weight increase faster than cross-sectional area & strength
    • This results in disproportionately larger support features (such as legs)
    • Lighter animals tend to have thin legs (spiders, deer, etc.)
    • Heavier animals tend to have thick legs (rhinos, elephants, hippos)