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The Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Tuesday, January 23, 2007. REVIEW. Learned that NT gospel writers were interpreters and not historians Learned that there is a literary relationship between the synoptic gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke)

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the gospels of matthew and luke

The Gospels of Matthew and Luke

Tuesday, January 23, 2007

review
REVIEW
  • Learned that NT gospel writers were interpreters and not historians
  • Learned that there is a literary relationship between the synoptic gospels(Matthew, Mark and Luke)
  • According to the four-source hypothesis (see next slide) the Gospel of Mark was written first and Matthew and Luke copied from it when writing their own versions
  • Mark was written to offer hope during crisis of the Fall of the Temple and subsequent persecution and to counter criticism against Jesus as “messiah”
agenda
AGENDA

The Gospel According to Matthew

  • Authorship and Date
  • The Literary Structure
  • The Theological Themes

The Gospel According to Luke

  • Authorship and Date
  • The Literary Structure
  • The Theological Themes

Tutorial: Healing of the Leper (Form criticism)

the gospel of matthew
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • Authorship and Date
    • Unlike Mark, Matthew was attributed to one of the actual disciples of Jesus
      • The traditional answer: Matthew, the apostle of Jesus (aka Levi), ex-tax collector
        • Earliest witness: Irenaeus (end of 2nd century) Against Heresies 3.1.1

Matthew edited a writing of the Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, while Peter and Paul were preaching the Gospel in Rome and founding the Church

the gospel of matthew6
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • Authorship and Date
    • Unlike Mark, Matthew was attributed to one of the actual disciples of Jesus
      • The traditional answer: Matthew, the apostle of Jesus (aka Levi), ex-tax collector
        • Fifty years later: Origen (3rd century) quoted in Eusebius’ History 6.25

The first [Gospel] is written according to Matthew, the same that was once a publican, but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, who having published it for the Jewish converts, wrote it in Hebrew.

the gospel of matthew7
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • Authorship and Date
    • Unlike Mark, Matthew was attributed to one of the actual disciples of Jesus
      • The critical answer: an unnamed Jewish-Christian
        • Look at the call of Matthew(see next slide)
the gospel of matthew10
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • Authorship and Date
    • Unlike Mark, Matthew was attributed to one of the actual disciples of Jesus
      • The critical answer: an unnamed Jewish-Christian
        • Eighty percent of Matthew has been copied from either Mark or Q
          • Which begs the critical question: Why would an eyewitness tell his story by copying someone else?
the gospel of matthew11
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • Authorship and Date
    • Author was likely a Jewish-Christian writing in a Jewish environment (perhaps the city of Antioch)
    • The most likely date of writing: 80-95 C.E.
      • Writer’s use of Mark (written ca. 70 C.E.)
      • Writer assumes the existence of a church (16:18; 18:15, 17, 21)
      • Writer’s polemic against the Pharisees (esp. ch. 23)
the gospel of matthew12
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Literary Structure
    • As a carefully constructed narrative . . .
      • It begins with “the book of the genesis . . .” (1:1) and ends with “. . . until the end of the age.” (28:20)
        • Clearly setting the story of Jesus in a wide framework
      • It is firmly rooted in the OT with its multiple prophecy fulfillments
        • Jesus is tied to Abraham (one nation) then his church is sent to all nations
the gospel of matthew13
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Literary Structure
    • As a carefully constructed narrative . . .
      • Two main sections:
        • Jesus’ life and ministry in Galilee
        • Jesus’ move from Galilee to the cross and resurrection at Jerusalem
        • The turning point is Peter’s confession in chapter 16
          • “from this time on” Jesus explains his mission to suffer, to die and to “be raised to life” (16:23)
the gospel of matthew14

A new Torah?

A new Moses?

THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Literary Structure
    • As a carefully constructed narrative . . .
      • Five significant discourse each followed by “when Jesus had finished these saying”
          • 5-7 The Sermon on the Mount
          • 10 Instructing the Twelve
          • 13 Parables of the Kingdom
          • 18 Church life and order discourse
          • 24-25 Mount of Olives discourse
the gospel of matthew15
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Literary Structure
    • The author’s style
      • His Greek is more literary and less disjointed that that of Mark
the gospel of matthew16
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Literary Structure
    • The author’s style
      • He writes more concisely
the gospel of matthew17
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Literary Structure
    • Evidence of literary interdependence (micro-level intertextuality) and willingness to edit
the gospel of matthew18
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Thoroughly Christological in presentation of Jesus
      • Jesus fulfills the OT story with formula quotations (1:22-23; 2:15, 17-18, 23; 4:14-16; 8:17; 12:17-21; 13:35; 21:4-5; 27:9-10, perhaps 2:5-6)
        • Unique to Matthew
        • Introduced by typical formula “this took place to fulfill what was spoken . . .”
        • Often use translations that differ from LXX
        • Ignores the context of the original text (pesher technique of interpretation)
        • One (2:23 “he shall be called a Nazorean”) not in OT
the gospel of matthew19
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Thoroughly Christological in presentation of Jesus
      • Jesus fulfills the Law
        • Key verse (5:17) “not come to destroy the law and the prophets but to fulfill them”
        • He affirms even the details of the law (5:18-19)

For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter, will pass from the law until all is accomplished.

Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, will be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever does them and teaches them will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

the gospel of matthew20
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Thoroughly Christological in presentation of Jesus
      • Jesus fulfills the Law
        • He demands a level of righteousness that goes beyond the letter of the Law
the gospel of matthew21
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Thoroughly Christological in presentation of Jesus
      • Jesus brings a higher righteousness
        • Term (“righteousness”) is a key term for Matthew (and it is completely absent from Mark)
        • Jesus’ baptism fulfils all righteousness (3:15)
        • Disciples must hunger and thirst for righteousness (5:6)
        • The “Kingdom of Heaven” (32x) is for those persecuted for righteousness’ sake
        • Unless righteousness exceeds that of the Scribes and the Pharisees one cannot enter heaven
the gospel of matthew22
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Thoroughly Christological in presentation of Jesus
      • Matthew has a particular bias against the Pharisees
        • Destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple (70 C.E.) created a leadership vacuum
        • Both Matthew and the Pharisees (Rabbis) were vying for that leadership role
        • Matthew’s most effective weapon was to have Jesus categorically denounce them (see next slide)
slide23

Both Matthew and Luke use Q material to provide the words of John the Baptist

  • But, as with most if not all oral material, the context must be constructed by the author
  • How does Matthew demonstrate a polemic against the Pharisees?
the gospel of matthew24
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Messiah
        • The Christ
          • He uses this title 14 times and insists on the “the” in order to preserve it as a title and not a last name
        • The Son of David
          • Matthew has a preference for this title (see next slide)
slide25

1:1 An account of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, …

21:9 The crowds … were shouting, “Hosanna to the Son of David! …”

9:27 … two blind men followed him, crying loudly, “Have mercy on us, Son of David!”

15:22 … a Canaanite woman … shouting, “Have mercy on me, Lord, Son of David; …”

20:30 … two blind men sitting by the roadside… shouted, "Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David!"

… they shouted even more loudly, "Have mercy on us, Lord, Son of David!"

21:15 … the children crying out in the temple “Hosanna to the Son of David,”

the gospel of matthew26
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • A more powerful and majestic version than Mark’s
the gospel of matthew27
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • A more powerful and majestic version than Mark’s
the gospel of matthew28
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • Jesus’ personal references to God as his father (unique)
the gospel of matthew29
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • Jesus’ personal references to God as his father (unique)
the gospel of matthew30
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • Jesus’ personal references to God as his father (unique)
the gospel of matthew31
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • Matthew drops references to Jesus’ emotions
the gospel of matthew32
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • Matthew’s Jesus questions less than Mark’s Jesus
the gospel of matthew33
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • Matthew’s Jesus questions less than Mark’s Jesus
the gospel of matthew34
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Matthew’s particular Christology
      • Jesus, the Son of God
        • A less human and more kingly Jesus
the gospel of luke
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • Authorship and Date
    • Like Mark not attributed to original apostle
      • The traditional answer: a physician and a companion of the apostle Paul
        • The Anti-Marcionite Prologue (end of 2nd century)

Luke, a Syrian of Antioch, doctor by profession, was the disciple of the Apostles. At a later date he was the disciple of Paul until the death of the latter. After having served the Lord without fault and never having married, he died, full of the Holy Spirit, at Boeotia, aged eighty-four. As gospels had already been written by Matthew in Judea and by Mark in Italy, Luke, under the impulse of the Holy Spirit, wrote his gospel in the region of Achaia. In the prologue he shows that the other gospels had been written before his, but that it was necessary to present to the faithful converted from paganism an exact account of the economy of salvation, lest they should be impeded by Jewish fables or caused to stray from the truth by the deceits of heretics.

the gospel of luke36
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • Authorship and Date
    • Like Mark not attributed to original apostle
      • The traditional answer: a physician and a companion of the apostle Paul
        • Irenaeus (end of 2nd century)

Luke, the companion of Paul, wrote the latter’s gospel in a book

the gospel of luke37
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • Authorship and Date
    • Like Mark not attributed to original apostle
      • The traditional answer: a physician and a companion of the apostle Paul
        • Yet there is no significant Pauline influence detectable in any of the gospel
        • There are no references to or quotations of Paul’s letters
the gospel of luke38
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • Authorship and Date
    • Like Mark not attributed to original apostle
      • The critical answer: an anonymous Christian
        • Presupposes Mark
        • Expands Mark 13 (Jesus’ last days prophecy)
          • By mentioning Jerusalem
the gospel of luke39
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • Authorship and Date
    • Like Mark not attributed to original apostle
      • The critical answer: an anonymous Christian
        • Presupposes Mark
        • Expands Mark 13 (Jesus’ last days prophecy)
          • By replacing “desolating sacrilege” with “desolation” to emphasize the city
the gospel of luke40
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • Authorship and Date
    • Like Mark not attributed to original apostle
      • The critical answer: an anonymous Christian
        • He pushes the Parousia further into the future
the gospel of luke41
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • Authorship and Date
    • Like Mark not attributed to original apostle
      • The critical answer: an anonymous Christian
        • He demonstrates unfamiliarity with Palestine and does not appear to have lived there
    • The date of writing is likely 80-95 C.E.
the gospel of luke42
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • The Literary Structure
    • In comparison with Matthew:
      • Like Matthew, begins with birth narrative but from a very different perspective
      • Ends with a full description of Jesus’ resurrection appearances
      • Like Matthew, it combines Mark, Q and unique material
      • Unlike Matthew, who uses most of Mark, Luke uses little more than half
        • He omits Mark 6:45-8:26 “Big Omission”
        • He omits Mark 9:41-10:12 “Little Omission”
      • Luke’s unique (1/2) cf. Matthew’s unique (1/3)
the gospel of luke43
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • The Literary Structure
    • Greek is richer than both Mark and Matthew
      • 261 unique words employed
      • Clear Hellenistic style of imitating the Greek of the LXX
    • A much longer journey to Jerusalem section (9:15-19:27) and then Acts continues to Rome
      • Much of this section contains stories unique to Luke
    • Only Gospel to contain “example stories”
      • The Good Samaritan (10)
      • The Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus (16)
      • The Pharisee and the Publican (18)
the gospel of luke44
THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
  • The Literary Structure
    • Luke sees history in three parts (Conzelmann)
      • The period of Israel (OT)
      • The period of Jesus (Luke) free of Satan’s activity
      • The period of the church (Acts)
the gospel of matthew45
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Salvation is a major theme
      • The noun “salvation” (Gk soteria, soterion) 7x (not in Mark nor Matthew
      • God and Jesus are called Savior (soter) but not in Mark nor Matthew
      • The verb “save” (sozo) 18x (15x in both Mark and Matthew)
      • But then Luke uses this word group another 27x in Acts
the gospel of matthew46
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Salvation is universal but Luke does focus on Gentiles, Samaritans and the marginalized
      • Compare Matthew’s Beatitudes
        • Matthew 5:3 and Luke 6:20
the gospel of matthew47
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Salvation is universal but Luke does focus on Gentiles, Samaritans and the marginalized
      • Compare Matthew’s Beatitudes
        • Matthew 5:6 and Luke 6:21
the gospel of matthew48
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • The Holy Spirit is very prominent in Acts and therefore is highlighted in Luke
      • John the Baptist and parents are filled with the Spirit (1:15, 41, 67)
      • Simeon is a man of the Spirit (2:25-27 threefold reference!)
the gospel of matthew49
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • The Holy Spirit is very prominent in Acts and therefore is highlighted in Luke
      • Jesus is the man of the Spirit
        • Conceived by it (1:35)
        • Empowered by it (3:22; 4:1, 14, 18)
        • Baptizer of others with the Spirit (3:16)
        • Teaches that Father gives the Spirit (11:13, cf. Matt 7:11)
        • Warns against blasphemy against the Spirit (12:10)
        • Promises disciples to be instructed by the Spirit (12:12, cf. Acts 4:8; 6:10; 7:2, 55)
        • Promises Spirit to come after resurrection (24:49)
the gospel of matthew50
THE GOSPEL OF MATTHEW
  • The Theological Themes
    • Jesus and Women
      • Ch 1-2 parallels men and women (Mary & Zachariah; Anna & Simeon)
      • Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Susanna, Mary and Martha (8:1-3; 10:38-42)
      • Healing the widow (7:11-15), the woman with the alabaster jar (7:37-50); the woman with hemorrhage (8:43-48); the crippled woman (13:11-13)
      • Story of the women with 10 coins (15:8-10), the widow seeking justice (18:1-8), widow with copper coins (21:1-4), daughters of Jerusalem (23:27-31), women witnesses (23:49, 55 compared to Peter 22:54-62)
      • Women witnesses to the resurrection (24:1-12 compare reactions of the men and women)
tutorial
TUTORIAL
  • Read and compare the story of the Healing of the Leper as given in Mark 1:40-45 and Matthew 8:1-4.
    • What details are the same?
    • What details are different?
    • What significance can you find in these and other details?
    • Can you suggest why Matthew makes the changes that he does?