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Kada je nešto u okolišu opasno ?. Kada je nešto u okolišu opasno ?. ?. =. ?. =. ONEČIŠČENJE. - unos stranih tvari u okoliš i prirodu koje se mijenjaju sporo ili se uopće ne mijenjaju, te ne utjeću direktno na kemijske procese. ZAGAĐENJE.

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?

=

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?

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ONEČIŠČENJE

- unos stranih tvari u okoliš i prirodu koje se mijenjaju sporo ili se uopće ne mijenjaju, te ne utjeću direktno na kemijske procese.

ZAGAĐENJE

- unos stranih tvari u okoliš i prirodu koje direktno utjeću na kemijske procese.

slide7

ONEČIŠČENJE

ZAGAĐENJE

“kontaminacija”

slide8

OPASNOST

- potencijal određene tvari da uzrokuje neželjenu pojavu

RIZIK

- mogućnost ili vjerojatnost da nastupi određena neželjena pojava

slide12

0

Hg

Hg

slide13

BIORASPOLOŽIVOST

tj. sposobnost tvari da dospiju u organizme.

OPASNOST od neke tvari je proporcionalna s njezinom bioraspoloživosti.

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BIOKONCENTRACIJA

- akumuliranje tvari u organizmu

BIOMAGNIFIKACIJA

- povećanje koncentracije tvari u organizmima kroz hranidbeni lanac

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U okolišu i prirodu najopasnije tvari (ujedno i tvari koje predstavljaju najveći rizik) su one koje su po vlastitoj prirodi ili koje tijekom reakcija s drugim tvarima postaju BIORASPOLOŽIVE.

Najopasnije tvari karakteriziraju, pored dobre bioraspoloživosti, svojstvo BIOKONCENTRACIJE i BIOMAGNIFIKACIJE.

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BIOMARKERI

&

BIOMONITORING

slide18

Biomarkeri su

mjerljive promjene parametara bioloških sustava

Biomarkeri su

mjerljive promjene parametara bioloških sustava

Biomarkers are measurable biological parameters which change in response to xenobiotic exposure and other environmental or physiological stressors, and can be indices of toxicant exposure or effects.

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Biomarkers are are physiological or biochemicals measures, such as blood holinesterase concentration, that may be indicative of exposure to contaminants.

Environmental Restoration Risk Assessment Program, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.

Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831

Biomarkers are defined as indicators of variation in cellular or biochemical components or processes, and in structure or function in biological systems or samples.

H. V. MORLEY, London Research Center, Agriculture Canada, Ontario, Canada

In general, biomarkers are observable properties of an organism that can be used in a number of ways: 1) to estimate the organism’s prior exposure to exogenous chemicals, metabolite(s) or the products of interaction between a chemical and target cells that are measured within an organism; 2) to identify changes or effects occurring in the organism-measurable alterations of an organism that, depending on the magnitude, can indicate a potential or known health impairment or disease; and, 3) to assess the underlying susceptibility of an organismindicators of inherent or acquired properties of an organism that may lead to an increase in the internal dose of a chemical or an increased level of response from exposure.

US Environmental Protection Agency

Biomarkers are a broadly classified group of methodologies, which include physiologic, metabolic, genotoxic, immunologic, and other approaches to assessing toxicological effects on organisms.

CALIFORNIA REGIONAL WATER QUALITY CONTROL BOARD

Biomarkers are sensitive molecular, cellular, or organismal indicators of changes in environmental conditions or organism health.

Stratus Consulting Inc. Environment and Energy Research

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Biomonitoring je

praćenje stanja sustava pomoću biomarkera

Biomonitoring je

praćenje stanja sustava pomoću biomarkera

Biomonitoring is the term scientists use to describe the use of plants, animals, or entire ecosystems to tell if our environment is polluted. Biomonitoring has been used by biologists and scientists to give us information about our surroundings for a long time.

EPA, Environmental Education

In the operational context, the term aquatic biomonitoring is used to refer to the gathering of biological data in both the laboratory and the field for the purposes of making some sort of assessment, or in determining whether regulatory standards and criteria are being met in aquatic ecosystems.

Hohls, D.R. 1996.

Biomarkers are defined as indicators of variation in cellular or biochemical components or processes, and in structure or function in biological systems or samples.

H. V. MORLEY, London Research Center, Agriculture Canada, Ontario, Canada 

Biomonitoring is a testing procedure that measures effluent toxicity and provides an estimate of the effects of effluents in stream environments. In conjunction with chemical testing, it provides a cost-effective method of evaluating discharge performance.

Analytical Laboratory Services Inc.

Biomonitoring:biomonitoring is studying organisms in their environment to tell what characteristics the environment has, for example, water quality.

http://sci-lab.onysd.wednet.edu/academics/science/subjects/ecology/water/home.html

Biomonitoring is a process whereby responses to chemical contaminants are quantified in situ at the cellular, physiological, and ecological levels to characterize health risks to resident organisms.

US EPA

Biomonitoring is a general term which refers to the use of living organisms to detect changes in an effluent or waterbody and can be used to indicate whether aquatic life may be endangered. Ohio EPA conducts two types of biomonitoring: biological surveys (typically a field test) and effluent toxicity tests (typically a lab test).

Ohio EPA

Biomonitoring is a method by which scientists study the natural systems to determine their ecological health.

STATE OF RHODE ISLAND AND PROVIDENCE PLANTATIONS, DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGMENT, OFFICE OF WATER RESOURCES

Biomonitoring is the gathering of biological information in both the laboratory and the field for the purpose of making an assessment or decision or in determining whether water quality objectives have been met.

US National Eutrophication Monitoring Programme

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- inhibicija/indukcija enzima

- promjene na DNA/RNA

- inhibicija/indukcija MXR

- indukcija metalotionenina

- ekspresija vitelogeninskog gena

- biometrijski parametri

- anatomske promjene/status

- histološke promjene/status

- citološke promjene/status

- bogatstvo vrsta

- kvalitativni sastav biocenoza

- omjeri subpopulacijskih kategorija

- abundanca i rasprostranjenost

Biomonitoring voda je praćenje stanja akvatičkih sustava pomoću mjerljivih parametara pripadajućih bioloških podsustava (biomarkera).

Molekularni biomarkeri

Organizmički biomarkeri

Populacijski biomarkeri

slide21

Promjena vjerojatnosti reparacije sustava u odnosu s vremenom detekcije promjene

Molekularni biomarkeri

BIOMARKERI RANOG UČINKA

Organizmički biomarkeri

Populacijski biomarkeri

slide22

CYP sustav (EROD, BaPMO)

- PAH, xCDD, xCDF, PCB

MT

- kadmij

AChE

- organofosfati, karbamati, kadmij, detergenti

PK, CS, ATA, GSH, GSHA

- oksidativni stres, metabolička aktivnost, trajanje ekspozicije

DNA-adukti, Ames-test

- mutageni potencijal, genotoksičnost

komet-test, mikronukleus-test

- mutageni potencijal, genotoksičnost

slide23

šaran, Cyprinus carpio

babuška, Carassius auratus gibelio

patuljasti somić, Ictalurus nebulosus

slide25

trlja blatarica, Mullus barbatus

zlatouhi cipal, Liza aurata

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Kumulativno svojstvo indukcije EROD

kao biomarker izloženosti PAH

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XII mj.

5 km

5 km

5 km

5 km

5 km

I mj.

III mj.

IV mj.

V mj.

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ZAKLJUČCI

- Veličinu opasnosti i rizika od pojedinih tvari u prirodi i okolišu NE KARAKTERIZIRA SAMO njihova koncentracija već ih karakterizira njihova BIORASPOLOŽIVOST.

- Do sada najpouzdaniji način određivanja opasnosti i rizika od pojedinih tvari u okolišu i prirodi je transpolacija i interpretacija rezultata BIOMONITORINGA u sprezi s klasičnim oblicima monitoringa.

- BIOMONITORING temeljen na BIOMARKERIMA pouzdano potvrđuje ili opovrgava, te kvantificira opasnost i rizik specifično za svaki okoliš.

- BIOMARKERI nižih razina bioloških sustava odlikuju se brzinom detekcije promjena ali malom prognostičkom mogućnosti, dok se BIOMARKERI viših razina bioloških sustava odlikuju zakašnjelom detekcijom ali velikim prognostičkim potencijalom.