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Abnormal Psychology & Therapy. By: Nikki Tiffan, Rachel Yuricich, Ella Wilson and Olivia Tholt. Abnormal Behavior. Behavior that is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a long period of time deviant: atypical, statistically unusual

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Abnormal Psychology & Therapy

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    1. Abnormal Psychology & Therapy By: Nikki Tiffan, Rachel Yuricich, Ella Wilson and Olivia Tholt

    2. Abnormal Behavior • Behavior that is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a long period of time • deviant: atypical, statistically unusual • maladaptive: inability to function in the world • personal distress: feelings of guilt, shame, despair • Just because someone isn’t average, doesn’t mean they automatically are categorized as abnormal behavior • ex: celebrities

    3. Examples of Abnormal Behavior • A woman showers 7 times per day on a rigid schedule • A man believes he endangers others just by being around them, so he isolates himself. • A bulimic woman feels immense guilt for hiding her condition from her family

    4. Biological Approach • Attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes. • brain, genetic factors, neurotransmitter • medical diseases with a biological origin • patients suffer from mental illness and are treated by doctors

    5. Sociocultural Approach • emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives, including the individual’s gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family relationships, and culture. • low income vs. higher income neighborhoods • poverty creates stress • eating disorders are culture related

    6. Biopsychosocial Approach • abnormal behavior can be influenced by biological factors (such as genes), psychological factors (such as childhood experiences), and sociocultural factors (such as gender) • variety of factors interacting with each other to develop normal or abnormal behavior

    7. Classifying Abnormal Behavior • common basis for communication between psychologists/psychiatrists • a name for a disorder can be comforting to a patient • could also create a stigma

    8. DSM-IV • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders • major classification of psychological disorders • classifies individuals on 5 dimensions • Axis 1: All diagnostic categories except personality and mental retardation • Axis 2: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation • Axis 3: General Medical Conditions • Axis 4: Psychosocial and environmental problems • Axis 4: Current Level of Functioning

    9. Critiques of DSM-IV • symptoms are classified independent of environmental factors • focuses too strictly on problems • stigma • do “mental illnesses” even exist? • Tom Cruise

    10. Types of Disorders • Depressive disorders • Bipolar disorder • Anti-social personality disorder • Borderline personality disorder

    11. What is a Mood Disorder? • a psychological disorder characterized by the elevation or lowering of a person's mood, such as depression or bipolar disorder • Mood disorders are a less severe form of depression. • Causes chronic and long-lasting moodiness • Dysthymia is contrasted with a full major depressive episode that lasts two years or longer, which is called chronic major depression • Up to 5% of the general population is affected by dysthymic disorder (depression) These factors create mood disorders: • Genetics • Abnormalities in the functioning of brain circuits involved in emotional processing • Chronicstress or medical illness • Isolation • Poor coping strategies and problems adjusting to life stresses http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qHtepox2DU

    12. Symptoms and Factors of Mood Disorders Symptoms of mood disorders: • Body aches • Changes in appetite • Difficulty concentrating • Difficulty sleeping • Fatigue • Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness or inadequacy • Guilt • Hostility or aggression • Irritability and mood changes • Loss of interest in daily life • Problems interacting with loved ones • Unexplained weight gain or loss Risk factors for mood disorders include: • Adolescence • Alcohol or drug use • Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or chronic pain • Certain medications • Family history of mood disorders • Female gender • Isolation from other people • Personal history of sleep disorders • Recent traumatic life event such as divorce or death in the family

    13. Mood Disorder Case Study Jessica is a 28 year-old married female. She has a very demanding, high stress job as a second year medical resident in a large hospital. Jessica has always been a high achiever. She graduated with top honors in both college and medical school. She has very high standards for herself and can be very self-critical when she fails to meet them. Lately, she has struggled with significant feelings of worthlessness and shame due to her inability to perform as well as she always has in the past. For the past few weeks Jessica has felt unusually fatigued and found it increasingly difficult to concentrate at work. Her coworkers have noticed that she is often irritable and withdrawn, which is quite different from her typically upbeat and friendly disposition. She has called in sick on several occasions, which is completely unlike her. On those days she stays in bed all day, watching TV or sleeping. At home, Jessica’s husband has noticed changes as well. She’s shown little interest in sex and has had difficulties falling asleep at night. Her insomnia has been keeping him awake as she tosses and turns for an hour or two after they go to bed. He’s overheard her having frequent tearful phone conversations with her closest friend, which have him worried. When he tries to get her to open up about what’s bothering her, she pushes him away with an abrupt “everything’s fine”. http://www.psyweb.com/Casestudies/CaseStudies.jsp

    14. Depressive Disorders • A depressive disorder is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts. It interferes with daily life, normal functioning, and causes pain for both the person with the disorder and those who care about him or her • Postpartum depression, which is diagnosed if a new mother develops a major depressive episode within one month after delivery. It is estimated that 10 to 15 percent of women experience postpartum depression after giving birth. • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), is characterized by the onset of a depressive illness during the winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. The depression generally lifts during spring and summer. Antidepressant medication and psychotherapy can reduce SAD symptoms, either alone or in combination with light therapy. • Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive illness is not as prevalent as major depression or dysthymia, and characterized by cycling mood changes: severe highs (mania) and lows (depression). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fyJn_3LkE8w

    15. Treatments of Depression The kind of depression treatment that's best for you depends on the type of depression you have. • some patients with clinical depression are treated with psychotherapy, and some are prescribed antidepressants • Others are prescribed antidepressants and psychotherapy. • Some may opt to try brain stimulation techniques such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), also called electroshock therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), or vagus nerve stimulation (VNS).

    16. Depressive Disorder Case Study YP, a 38-year-old single Caucasian woman, presented to her primary care physician with symptoms of depression. These symptoms included feelings of sadness, anhedonia, significant loss of energy, psychomotor retardation, recurrent suicidal ideation, and difficulty sleeping. YP denied any significant medical issues and reported that these symptoms began when her romantic relationship of eight years ended a year ago. She reported that these symptoms have been present for the last year, and have affected her ability to maintain relationships and function at work as a cashier. As a result, YP is currently unemployed, and has become increasingly isolated. Upon additional inquiries YP mentioned no prior psychiatric or pharmacological treatment for these symptoms and denied a history of depression or other psychiatric disorders. After talking with YP about her medical history, which includes obesity and hypertension, the physician then ended the exam by discussing options for the diagnosis and treatment of depression. Considering this information and the patient’s medical history, the physician recommended that YP undergo diagnostic testing for depression. http://primeinc.org/casestudies/physician/study/942/Major_Depressive_Disorder:_Comparative_Effectiveness_of_Nonpharmacologic_Treatments_In_Adults

    17. Depression among Children The symptoms of depressionin children vary. It is often undiagnosed and untreated because they are passed off as normal emotional and psychological changes that occur during growth. Early medical studies focused on "masked" depression, where a child's depressed mood was evidenced by acting out or angry behavior. The primary symptoms of depression revolve around sadness, a feeling of hopelessness, and mood changes. Signs and symptoms of depression in children include: • Irritability or anger. • Changes in appetite -- either increased or decreased. • Changes in sleep -- sleeplessness or excessive sleep. • Vocal outbursts or crying. • Difficulty concentrating. • Fatigue and low energy.

    18. Sociocultural Factors • In the United States, women are twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with depression. • That would occur because women are more likely to show their feelings, their sadness and to seek help. • Men do not tend to show their pain and often don't interpret the physical symptoms of depression, like not sleeping, insomnia, physical pain as being the depression. • Men are angry and abusive, which are the early signs from men in depression, or they take risks and put themselves in harms way, others think there's something wrong with them, but they're not depressed. • So often they don't get the treatment for depression that they need. That's how our social systems sometimes see men and women differently when they have a depression.

    19. Psychological Factors • Certain psychological factors put people at risk for depression. • Low self-esteem • Consistently show pessimism • Are readily overwhelmed by stress • Perfectionism • Sensitivity to loss and rejection • Common in people with chronic anxiety disorders • Borderline and avoidant personality disorders

    20. Personality Disorders • Personality disorders: chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into a person’s personality. • Relatively common, a study of a representative U.S. sample found 15% had a personality disorder. • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) lists 10 different personality disorders, antisocial and borderline being the most heavily studied. • Associated with dire consequences.

    21. Antisocial Personality Disorder • Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD): a psychological disorder characterized by guiltlessness, law-breaking, exploitation of others, irresponsibility, and deceit. • These people don’t play by the rules and leave a life of crime and violence. • More common in men • Related to vandalism, substance abuse, criminal behavior, and alcoholism. Exploitative of others and lack empathy. • ASPD isn’t diagnosed unless a person has shown persistent behavior before age 15. • Not all people with ASPD are criminals, and not all criminals have ASPD.

    22. Antisocial Personality Disorder Con. • ASPD is genetically heritable, certain characteristics associated with ASPD may interact with testosterone to promote antisocial behavior. • Research had linked ASPD to low levels of activation in the prefrontal cortex, which related these to poor decision making and learning problems.

    23. Antisocial Disorder Case Study In the first case study we explored antisocial personality disorder; the clients name is George. George is hospitalized with symptoms of APD, and states that he came to the hospital because “my mind got so bad, no one could tell me what to do”. He goes onto to describe what he means by this statement. George admits to holding a gun to his father’s head, holding his mother’s face and calling her names, and didn’t care about anything; including himself, father, mother, or his children. George admits to distributing drugs on the street “to others who are sick people; he didn’t he had a sickness”.As the interview progresses, the interviewer asks George if he has engaged in any fights with weapons and at what age. George states that he was in multiple fights as young as 11 years old. He describes an event where he used a knife in a fight, and that his mother worked for the courts so he received a good deal. George describes his past volatile behavior by describing his past actions. George states that he used to throw bricks and bottles at people’s heads, “to bust their heads”. He describes carrying and using 13 inch switch blades. The interviewer asks if he meant to hurt them, and George replies “Yes, I didn’t care about it, I had no feelings for nobody, if I felt like killing somebody, fuck him in the hospital, I didn’t care about it”. George’s “lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another (Criterion A (7) is evident by the above statement.George goes on to describe additional past events, such as; stealing from his daddy, stealing valuable comic books at school and sold them. George had an inappropriate smirk, smile, when he admitted to the value of the comic books. George’s deceitful behavior “as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or coning others for personal profit or pleasure” (DSM-IV-TR, 200) is evident by his stealing and selling his mothers comic books for personal profit or gain; money (Criterion A, (2), DSM-IV-TR, 2000). The interviewer went on to ask about other behaviors, such as torturing animals. He states he loves animals, and would never hurt an animal; but a person, “I’d do something to a person, I have hatred inside me, the more I hit somebody, the more anger I get inside”. George presents with symptoms of “irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults, Criterion A (4).It is evident that George has a “pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15years”, (DSM-IV-TR, 2000), as evidence by his repeated fighting as young as 11 years old, his involvement and trouble with the law for fighting, selling drugs, stealing, brandishing a gun to his father’s head, and other violent behaviors (Criterion A).

    24. Borderline Personality Disorder • Borderline personality disorder (BPD): a psychological disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. • Individuals are insecure, impulsive, and emotional, they are prone to mood swings and are sensitive • Related to self harming behaviors • Far more common in women than in men, unlikely to be treatable.

    25. Borderline Personality Disorder Con. • See world in black-and-white terms (splitting). • Causes include biological factors (40% heritability) and childhood experiences. • Display hypervigilance, the tendency to be constantly on the alert, looking for threatening information in the environment.

    26. Borderline Disorder Case Study Confessions of a man suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder - my story: I am a 44 year-old, divorced white male, single full-time father of two, with a master's degree and a professional job, and I suffer from borderline personality disorder. Since I like to blog about what is going on with me, my therapist suggested that I try to share my experiences with others to try to help them understand what is going on inside a person with BPD, and this would help me understand my own disorder. So, I created a blog entitled Confession of a man suffering from BPD. Here is my story: My father left when I was four years old, and married another woman while still married to my mother. Up until he left when I was four years old, my dad was my best friend. As my mother and I pulled out of the driveway to go visit my grandparents one day, my dad promised that he would pick me up. But, he never did. My stepfather, who my mother married when I was nine, was an abusive, control freak... He emotionally abused me partly by controlling every little aspect of my life, and of course I never did anything good enough, and partly by always telling me that I would never amount to crap on an almost daily basis. Since I left home at age 17, I have been through 5 marriages and numerous committed relationships. I ended each and every relationship, and no matter how good the relationship was. I loved them all deeply at first. I then came to despise them, but I wanted them to love me. I am an exceptionally impulsive individual. I jump in and out of relationships. If I WANT to do or say something, I typically do or say it without any regard for the consequences. If I have something on my mind, it controls and engulfs me until I act upon it; I get no relief until I do. It is like I push the limits of all relationships; lovers, friends, and co-workers/employers. I thrive on the drama of it all. After reeling people in, I want them to feel sorry for me and work to try to make me happy. I want them to stop worrying about their problems and/or responsibilities and concentrate on me. However, I am actually sabotaging these relationships because there is only so much people can take. I go for the online dating thing when a relationship ends. I really don't have the desire for sex. For me, this is some kind of compulsive behavior were I try to seek the affection and, hence, validation from someone else. Although my children live with me, I absolutely despise being alone and having no adult female around that loves me. However, I view everyone I know as either all good or all evil. When they do something good, I love them; when they do something I think is bad, I see them as evil, and I hold a grudge. At the same time, I trust no one. I feel like everyone has an ulterior motive. And, the thing I hate the most is being criticized because I try to do everything right. When things don't go as planned or I am interrupted in my thought process, I have bouts of inappropriate anger....I have gone off on my kids to the point that I scared the crap out of them. To this day, even as teens, do pretty much everything I say without question. This attitude came about because they wanted peace and my love and this is the price they pay for it. I also experience mood swings. One minute I am happy or content. The next minute I am depressed or mad. It is like I am bored with contentment and I seek excitement whether it is positive or negative. I also flee stressful situations. Finally, I have no clue as to who or what I am and I experience intense feeling of emptiness. I feel like I am just faking it as I go through life. I have experimented with many lifestyles, and still don't know who or what I really am.

    27. Chapter 16: Therapy

    28. Biological Therapies- Drug Therapy Biological therapies are treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning. These therapies are also known as biomedical therapies. Drug therapy is the most common form of biomedical therapy and are used to treat a variety of disorders. Antianxiety drugs reduce anxiety by making the individual calmer and less excitable. Also known as tranquilizers. Benzodiazepines offer the greatest relief for anxiety symptoms, but can be addictive. Examples are Valium, Xanax, and Librium. They are also fast-acting. Non Benzodiazepines are used to treat generalized anxiety disorders. An example is buspirone. Side effects include drowsiness, loss of coordination, fatigue, and mental slowing. Can lead to depression when combined with alcohol, anesthetics, antihistamines, sedatives, muscle relaxants and prescription painkillers. Antianxiety drugs are best used temporarily and are widely overused becoming addictive. Antidepressant drugs regulate mood. There are 4 classes: tricyclics, tetracyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    29. Drug Therapy Contd. Tricyclics are have a 3-ringed molecular structures and work by increasing the level of neurotransmitters, especially norepinephrine and serotonin. They reduce symptoms of depression. Side effects include restlessness, faintness, trembling, sleepiness, and memory difficulties. ie. Elavil Tetracyclics are 4-ringed molecular structures. Also known as noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, they have the same effect as tricyclics, but are more effective in reducing depression. ie. Avanza MAO inhibitors block the enzyme monoamine oxidase which breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain; allowing them to stay for synapses and help regulate mood. They’re more potentially harmful, but can be used for people who don’t respond to tricyclics. ie. Nardil Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors interfere with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain. They reduce symptoms of depression with fewer side effects than other antidepressants. Some side effects that do occur are insomnia, anxiety, headache, and diarrhea. If abruptly taken off the drug it can impair sexual functioning and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. ie. Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft Antidepressant drugs are also effective in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep disorders, and eating disorders. Also prescribed for common problems such as sleeplessness and chronic pain. Lithium is used to treat bipolar disorders. However there is great risk because the effective dosage is close to toxic amounts. It can also cause kidney and thyroid gland complications. It is thought to stabilize norepinephrine and serotonin levels, but effects are largely unknown. Effectiveness depends on the patient.

    30. Drug Therapy Contd. Antipsychotic drugs are powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with severe psychological disorders. Before these drugs little could be done for these individuals. One class of antipsychotic drugs are neuroleptics. They reduce many schizophrenic symptoms. Their success is due to blocking dopamine’s action in the brain. Side effects include lack of pleasure, tardis dyskinesia (neurological disorder characterized by involuntary random movement of facial muscles, tongue, mouth and twitching of arms, neck, and legs). Atypical antipsychotic medications have even less side effects. They seem to influence dopamine and serotonin. Examples are Clozaril and Risperdal. To increase the effectiveness smaller dosages work better than a large initial dose and combining drug therapy with psychotherapy.

    31. Increased Suicide Risk in Children The FDA ended up issuing a “black box” warning regarding prescriptions of antidepressants in children and adolescents. The warning described the potential of antidepressants to be associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Prescriptions dropped 20% in a one year time frame with the warning. Unfortunately, doctors were even reluctant to prescribe it when it may have helped the child. This is a very complicated topic to approach because of the glaring case study evidence, but lack of scientific and statistical evidence. Since the warning more studies have been issued there have been more studies showing no link between antidepressants suicide in adults and children. Psychotherapy has proven to be effective in children and has largely taken the place of drug therapy for depression in children and adolescents.

    32. Biological Therapies: Electroconvulsive Therapy Electroconvulsive therapy is also known as shock therapy. It’s commonly used to treat depression and sets off a seizure in the brain. This idea has been around since Hippocrates was on the earth. An italian neurologist, Ugo Cerletti, developed our modern form of shock therapy. Before they were induced by insulin overdose. Its benefits were discovered after diseases or other medical causes cured some psychological problems of patients. At first it was used indiscriminately as punishment. Now it’s used to treat severe depression and severe chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. It’s also used as a last resort when drug therapy and psychotherapy have not been effective. The procedure causes little discomfort now due to anesthetics and muscle relaxants because the process has not changed. One significant difference is it is only used on the right side instead of the entire brain. Deep brain stimulation has begun to rise. It’s a procedure for treatment-resistant depression that involves the implantation of electrodes in the brain that emit signals to alter the brain’s electrical circuitry. It’s also used in obsessive-compulsive disorder. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYl13Relzbs

    33. Biological Therapies: Psychosurgery Psychosurgery is a biological therapy, with irreversible effects, that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individual’s adjustment. Antonio Egas Moniz created this surgery which severs fibers between the frontal lobe and thalamus. He believed that severing the connections would alleviate the symptoms of severe mental disorders. Although some did benefit many were left in a vegetable-like state and Moniz felt his procedure should be a last resort. Walter Freeman heard about the procedure and performed the first lobotomy in the United States. He performed over 3,000 lobotomies, demonstrating them all over in state-run mental institutions.However, lobotomies were met with harsh criticism when many patients suffered permanent and profound brain damage. Similar to shock therapy it was used as punishment. Eventually drug therapies became a safe alternative to these two procedures and new regulations were made to safeguard patients. Lobotomies are no longer performed, but psychosurgery has advanced to becoming less intrusive and increased precision. Psychosurgery is still used highly selectively for severe cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depression and bipolar disorders instead of schizophrenia which was the intended purpose.

    34. Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is a nonmedical process that helps individuals with psychological disorders recognize and overcome their problems. It uses the strategies of talking, interpreting, listening, rewarding, and modeling. Another therapy field currently developing is cybertherapy or e-therapy where an online source provides help to people seeking therapy for psychological disorders. It’s controversial due to no proof of qualifications, distance, and confidentiality.

    35. Psychotherapy: Psychodynamic Therapies Psychodynamic therapies are treatments that stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual’s problems. The goal is to help the individual recognize their maladaptive ways and eventually change them. Alot of these approaches grew from Freud’s theories. Psychoanalysis is Freud’s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual’s unconscious thoughts. He believed current problems stemmed from early childhood. The goal is to bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness. Free association is a psychoanalytic technique that involves encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. Freud pushed until catharsis (a release of emotional tension a person experiences when reliving and emotionally charged and conflicting experience) happened. Interpretation is a psychoanalyst’s search for symbolic, hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy. Dream analysis is another psychoanalytic technique for interpreting a person’s dream. Freud believed dreams were a window into our unconscious mind. Two components of this technique are manifest content (conscious remembered aspects of a dream) and latent content (unconscious, hidden aspects of a dream). The goal is to unlock the meaning behind the latent content. Transference is a client’s relating to the psychoanalyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the individual’s life. Resistance is a client’s unconscious defense strategies that interfere with the psychoanalyst’s understanding of the individual’s problems.

    36. Psychodynamic Therapies Contd. Nowadays, psychoanalysts give more power to the conscious mind and current relationships instead of sex and hostility. People also sit face-to-face to the therapist in a comfortable chair rather than on a couch. Also, appointments are now weekly instead of several times a week. In Heinz Kohut’s view, early social relationships with attachment figures set the basis for the sense of self. He believed the therapist’s job was to replace unhealthy childhood relationships with a healthy relationship with the therapist. The therapist should be empathetic and understanding.

    37. Psychotherapy: Humanistic Therapies Humanistic therapies are unique treatments that emphasize people’s self-healing capacities that encourage clients to understand themselves and to grow personally. They emphasize conscious, present, and self-fulfillment rather than unconscious, past, and illness. Client-centered therapy, also known as Rogerian therapy and nondirective therapy, is a form of humanistic therapy developed by Rogers. The therapist provides a warm, supportive, atmosphere to improve the client’s self-concept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems. Emphasizes the client’s self-reflection instead of analysis and interpretation by the therapist. Tor reach the goal of helping the client identify and understand their own genuine feelings. Therapists use active listening and reflective speech to reach that goal. Reflective speech is a technique where the therapist mirrors the client’s own feelings back to the client. Humans require three essential elements to grow unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness.

    38. Behavior Therapy Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. CBT is commonly used to treat a wide range of disorders including phobias, addiction, depression and anxiety. Cognitive behavior therapy is generally short-term and focused on helping clients deal with a very specific problem. During the course of treatment, people learn how to identify and change destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a negative influence on behavior. There are a number of different approaches to CBT that are regularly used by mental health professionals. These types include rational emotive therapy, cognitive therapy, and multimodal therapy. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HoFNs-3r0Go

    39. Cognitive Therapies • Cognitive therapies: treatments that point to cognitions (thoughts) as the main source of psychological problems and that attempt to change the individual’s feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions. • Cognitive restructuring, a general concept for changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion, is central to cognitive therapies. • Focus on overt symptoms by providing more structure to the individual’s thoughts and being less concerned about the origin. • Involve basic assumptions: human beings have control over their feelings, and how they feel about something depends on how they think of it. • Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) - A therapy based on Ellis's assertion that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of irrational and self-defeating beliefs and whose goal is to get clients to eliminate these beliefs by rationally examining them. • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy - A therapy that combines cognitive therapy and behavior therapy with the goal of developing self-efficacy.

    40. Integrated Therapies • a combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapist’s judgment of which particular methods will provide the greatest benefit for the client

    41. Responsibilities Rachel: Mood Disorders, Case Studies, Behavior Therapies, Guided Notes Ella: Abnormal behaviors, Biological/Sociocultural/Biopsychosocial Approaches, Classifying Abnormal Behavior, DSM-IV, Guided Notes, Integrated Therapies Nikki: Biological Therapies, Increased Suicide Risk in Children, Psychodynamic Therapies, Humanistic Therapies, Guided Notes Olivia: Personality Disorders, Case Studies, Cognitive Therapies, Guided Notes

    42. Works Cited • http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mood-disorders • http://healingisessential.com/tag/depression/ • http://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/depressive-disorders • http://guardianlv.com/2014/02/biological-marker-found-for-depression-in-boys-health/ • http://www.depressionisreal.com/ • http://www.healthgrades.com/procedures/mood-disorders • http://img.timeinc.net/time/daily/2009/0901/360_wborderline_0119.jpg • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-PDvwPliThkQ/UMoVSW3mc7I/AAAAAAAA7QM/tygh43DSqxU/s400/antisocial+(1).jpg • http://tiffanywhitewriter.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Histrionicpersonalitydisorder.png • http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/depression-children • http://abcnews.go.com/Health/DepressionRiskFactors/story?id=4356064 • http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-are-the-risk-factors-for-depression/000515 • http://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/depression-treatment-options