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Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation. M. Burns FCS 3755. Pre-conception. Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight Choose an adequate and balanced diet Be physically active Avoid harmful influences – both parents. Placenta Amniotic sac Umbilical cord. Maternal Weight.

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pre conception
Pre-conception
  • Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight
  • Choose an adequate and balanced diet
  • Be physically active
  • Avoid harmful influences – both parents

Burns, 2008

slide3

Placenta

Amniotic sac

Umbilical cord

Burns, 2008

maternal weight
Maternal Weight
  • Prior to conception
    • Underweight increases risk for LBW
    • Overweight increases risk for medical complications
  • During pregnancy
    • Total weight gain
    • Weight gain patterns

Burns, 2008

nutrition during pregnancy
Nutrition during Pregnancy
  • Energy needs
  • Protein
  • Essential fatty acids
  • Vitamins and minerals
    • Folate, B12, iron and zinc for synthesis of DNA and new cells
    • Vitamin D, Ca, Mg, P, and F for bone development

Burns, 2008

nutrition related concerns of pregnancy
Nutrition-related Concerns of Pregnancy
  • Nausea due to hormonal changes
  • Constipation and hemorrhoids due to fetus crowding intestinal organs
  • Heartburn due to fetus putting pressure on mother’s stomach and hormones
  • Food cravings and aversions
  • Non-food cravings (pica)

Burns, 2008

malnutrition and pregnancy
Malnutrition and Pregnancy
  • Fertility issues
    • Amenorrhea and low sperm count
  • Early pregnancy
    • 18-23 months between infants
  • Fetal development
  • Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food assistance program

Burns, 2008

maternal health
Maternal Health
  • Pre-existing diabetes
  • Gestational diabetes
    • Screen at 24-28 weeks gestation
  • Pre-existing HTN
  • Pre-eclampsia
    • HTN, fluid retention, and protein in urine
  • Eclampsia
    • Includes convulsions

Burns, 2008

practices incompatible with pregnancy
Medicinal drugs

Herbal supplements

Illicit drugs

Smoking and chewing tobacco

Environmental contaminants (lead and mercury)

Food borne illness

Vitamin/mineral megadoses

Caffeine

Weight-loss dieting

Sugar substitutes

Alcohol

Practices Incompatible with Pregnancy

Burns, 2008

fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Cluster of physical, mental, and neurobehavioral symptoms
    • Pre and postnatal growth retardation
    • Impairment of brain and CNS
    • Increased frequency of major birth defects, such as cleft palate
    • Abnormalities of the face

Burns, 2008

lactation a physiological process
Lactation: A Physiological Process
  • Mammary glands secrete the milk
  • Prolactin
    • Hormone that tells the mammary glands to initiate and sustain milk production
  • Oxytocin
    • Hormone that stimulates the mammary glands to eject the milk (let-down response) and to contract the uterus during childbirth

Burns, 2008

nutrient needs of mother
Nutrient Needs of Mother
  • Energy intake and exercise
  • Energy nutrients
  • Vitamins and minerals
    • B6, B12, A, D, folate, iron, and calcium
  • Water
  • Nutrient supplements (iron, maybe)
  • Particular foods

Burns, 2008

practices incompatible with lactation
Practices Incompatible with Lactation
  • Alcohol use
  • Medicinal drugs
  • Illicit drugs
  • Smoking
  • Caffeine

Burns, 2008

maternal health1
Maternal Health
  • HIV infection and AIDS
    • HIV is spread via breast milk
  • Diabetes
    • Adjust insulin to energy needs
  • Postpartum amenorrhea
    • No period while breastfeeding
  • Breast health
    • Inconclusive evidence between breastfeeding and breast cancer

Burns, 2008