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z/VM Module 3: Control Program (CP). Objectives. Describe the Control Program (CP) and how it works with z/VM Explain why CP is known as a real-machine resource manager Explain how CP and the Virtual Machine environment work together List and explain the three types of virtual machines

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objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the Control Program (CP) and how it works with z/VM
  • Explain why CP is known as a real-machine resource manager
  • Explain how CP and the Virtual Machine environment work together
  • List and explain the three types of virtual machines
  • Describe the two types of preferred virtual machines according to storage
objectives continued
Objectives continued
  • Describe how CP commands are used and structured
  • Explain what is meant by truncation and abbreviation
  • Explain the importance of the VM Dump Tool and VM Virtual LANs
  • Describe some important hardware facilities that are supported by the Control Program:
    • FSDM
    • Cryptographic Facility
    • Additional Hardware Architectures and Facilities
  • List and describe the important and most useful CP commands
control program cp
Control Program (CP)
  • It provides each user with an individual working virtual machine environment
  • Every virtual machine is a functional equivalent of a real system, sharing:
    • Processor functions
    • Storage
    • Console
    • I/O device resources
  • It provides connectivity support to exchange information and access resources
real machine resource manager
Real-Machine Resource Manager
  • CP is a real-machine resource manager
    • Handles real machine hardware interrupts and all intercepts
    • Schedules certain real I/O operations
    • Manages:
      • Real storage
      • Expanded storage
      • Auxiliary storage
  • CP is the only way to communicate with the real resources on your virtual machine
cross system extension cse
Cross-System Extension (CSE)
  • Allows multiple systems to be coupled together in a complex that provides CSE
  • Cross-system link extends the existing CP minidisk access protocols
overview of setting up a cse complex
Overview of Setting up a CSE Complex
  • Provide the hardware connections between the processors
  • Install the IBM VM/Pass-Through Facility licensed program
  • Configure z/VM and the supporting programs with the information they need to run the CSE complex
inter system facility for communications
Inter-System Facility for Communications
  • Inter-System Facility for Communications (ISFC) is a function of CP
  • It enables communications between programs written to:
    • APPC/VM
    • Communication Services (CS), which is a group of interconnected VM systems that uses ISFC to communicate with each other
    • IUCV programming interfaces
the three types of virtual machines
The Three Types of Virtual Machines
  • The three types of VMs are defined by their storage configurations
    • V=R
      • CP provides performance benefits for the VM and it must begin at location 0
    • V=F
      • Also provides performance benefits but does not have to start at location 0
    • V=V
      • It does not map the host storage; it pages guest real storage into and out of the host real storage
preferred virtual machines
V=R & V=F Similarities

Store information in the real location

Are mapped into contiguous real storage

Can have dedicated real processors

Have similar I/O interpretations and simulation for shared devices

V=R & V=F Differences

V=F can have more than one virtual machine running, while V=R can only run one virtual machine

V=F does not start at absolute zero

V=R must start at absolute 0

V=R has better performance because it does less table translation than V=F

Preferred Virtual Machines
using cp commands
Using CP Commands
  • z/VM uses the CP command language to configure, tune and manipulate resources
    • To control the resources of the real machine
      • Processors
      • I/O devices
      • Networking devices
    • To control your virtual machine’s configuration and environment
cp structure
CP Structure
  • z/VM’s CP command lines contain a command name and a positional operand
  • Command names are:
      • Alphanumeric and less than 12 characters long
      • Verbs that describe the function
  • Operands are:
      • Keywords and symbols 8 characters or less in length
      • Not required on some commands
cp command truncations and abbreviations
Truncations:

Shorter form created by dropping one or more letters from the end of the command or operand

The uppercase letters in the syntax diagram must remain, but lowercase letters can be omitted

For the QUERY command we could use:

Query  Full name

que  Truncation

q  Shortest truncation

Abbreviations:

Shorter form of command names

They appear below the full name of the command in the syntax diagram

Operand abbreviations are displayed in the operand description

For the MESSAGE command we could use:

Message  Full Name

Msg  Abbreviation

CP Command Truncations and Abbreviations
cp control tools vm guest lan
Virtual Adapters

Simulated by a NIC, such as HiperSockets and OSA-Express devices

Can be operated by a guest using the same software that would be used to control the equivalent hardware

Connectivity for Virtual Adapters

Enables VM users to connect virtual network adapters to an emulated LAN

When connected to this virtual LAN, users can communicate over a physical LAN segment

CP Control Tools: VM Guest LAN
data mover facilities
Data Mover Facilities
  • Fast Synchronous Data Mover (FSDM):
    • Implemented on the G5/G6 models and later processors
    • Can be used with Hiperpools
    • Exploited by DB2 to meet increasing demand for improvements on expanded storage price and performance
cryptographic facility
Cryptographic Facility
  • Supported by CP
  • An effective means of protecting data in computers and communication systems from unauthorized disclosure
  • Involves two types of cryptographic transformation:
    • Plaintext into ciphertext (encryption)
    • Ciphertext into plaintext (decryption)
  • Includes two additional cryptographic processor enhancements:
    • PCI Cryptographic Accelerator
    • PCI Cryptographic Coprocessor
other cp supported hardware architectures and facilities
Other CP-Supported Hardware Architectures and Facilities
  • Additional hardware architectures:
    • IEEE Floating Point Hardware on IBM zSeries
    • FCP (Fibre Channel Protocol) hardware channel
  • Additional facilities:
    • Queued-Direct I/O Facility
    • Concurrent Sense Facility
      • ESCON
      • FICON
attach usage notes
ATTACH – Usage Notes
  • Usage Notes:
    • All DASDs connected to a paging director must be attached to the same user ID
    • If you attach two DASDs to different users and they are connected in a paging director you will receive an error message
    • If you log on after the device has been attached, you gain access to the disk
    • Messages provided by the CP tell you whether devices were successfully attached or if certain devices were not ready and online
define
DEFINE
  • The DEFINE command can change your system configuration and allows you to add new commands and setups to your system
  • Usage Notes:
    • You can suppress messages from this command by entering  SET IMSG OFF
    • Using the DEFINE command to alter the configuration of your virtual machine is temporary. Your configuration returns to its original state at the end of the session
    • Using the DEFINE command for I/O configuration is also temporary, unless you update you I/O configuration program file to make the changes permanent
dedicate usage notes
DEDICATE – Usage Notes
  • Defaults for DEDICATE are:
      • CPU ALL
      • User ID of the V=R machine
  • If there are more virtual processors then real processors, the lowest virtual addresses are dedicated first.
  • Order is not important for CPU and USER.
  • It is possible to have your dedicated processor become undedicated when some commands are issued after DEDICATE. This can be avoided if you enable automatic dedication.
indicate
INDICATE
  • For privilege Class G, it displays:
    • Recent contention for system resources
    • Environment characteristics of your virtual machine
    • Measurements of resources used by your virtual machine
  • For privilege Class E (sometimes B or C) it displays:
    • Detailed information on the use of system resources
    • The status of currently active virtual machines
    • Environment characteristics and measurements of resources used by any virtual machine
message
MESSAGE
  • The MESSAGE command:
    • Transmits messages to the virtual console of other active users
    • Has the format  Messageuserid messtosend
  • Usage Notes:
    • Messaging length in the CP environment is limited by the input area of the terminal
    • The SET MSG OFF command suppresses messages
    • Messages are displayed only when the display device is ready to receive output
    • If MSG ALL AT ALL is entered in a CSE, every user in every system receives the message
vary usage notes
VARY – Usage Notes
  • Usage Notes:
    • If you specify a list of devices, the summary at the end will list the devices that were varied online or offline
    • If your devices were varied online, but a success status does not appear and no errors occurred, use the FORCE operand to bring them online
    • The test operand provides the ability to use VARY for a device that would not normally be allowed by CP
conclusion
Conclusion
  • CP manages the resources of a single computer so that multiple computing systems appear to exist
  • CSE and ISFC help CP work with other virtual machines to create an interconnected environment
  • Virtual Machines can be set up to run in many different environments, such as V=V, V=R, and V=F
  • CP-supported facilities show how z/VM can be modified and extended by the CP commands
glossary
Glossary

Cross System Extensions (CSE)- allows users in up to four interconnected VM systems to participate in a multi-system environment.

Inter-System Facility for Communications (ISFC)- provides communications facilities between transaction programs on interconnected z/VM systems.

Programmed Operator Facility (PROP)- allows remote control of a virtual machine, enabling limited automation of routine operator activities

glossary1
Glossary

Dynamic Paging Area (DPA)- part of the real storage that CP uses for virtual machine pages.

Operands- keywords and symbols that affect command functions.

Command names- verbs that describe command functions. In z/VM, they are alphanumeric and less than 12 characters long.

Truncations- shorter forms constructed by dropping one or more letters from the end of a command or operand name

Abbreviations- short versions of command names

glossary2
Glossary

Asynchronous Data Mover Facility (ADMF)- can offload page move activity onto the I/O processor, freeing the instruction processor

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)- a chip technology used almost universally for processors today

Cryptography- an effective means of protecting data in computers and communication systems from unauthorized disclosure

ESCON- a set of products and services that use optical fiber technology and dynamically modifiable switches called ESCON Directors

glossary3
Glossary

Fiber optic cables- reduce cable bulk, allowing for an increase in the amount of distance between processors and attached devices, and improved data transfer rates

FICON- a fiber optic I/O architecture that coexists with and exploits existing ESCON equipment and infrastructure, but offers improved link performance and enhanced distance connectivity

Fast Synchronous Data Mover (FSDM)- replaces ADMF on the G5/G6 and all later processors