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Presentation by Kim Baker to Library and Information Studies Centre, UCT, Research Day 16 November 2012. Information literacy and Cultural heritage: developing a model for lifelong learning – preliminary findings.

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Presentation by Kim Baker to Library and Information Studies Centre, UCT, Research Day 16 November 2012

Information literacy and Cultural heritage: developing a model for lifelong learning – preliminary findings

introduction evolution of the idea

Began as a project to develop a model to teach information literacy and cultural heritage for one institution, locally (SA)

Expanded to consider application of the idea to three types of institutions locally (SA), namely museums, archives and libraries

Approached by overseas publisher to write a book on the subject for an international audience

Consolidated as the development of a generic model applicable internationally (for the book)

MPhil research focused on adapting the generic model to local conditions

Introduction: evolution of the idea
context influences

8 years of participation in IFLA

Meetings, conferences organised in several countries, leading to exposure to a variety of cultural heritage institutions, including museums, archives and libraries

Locations included Latin America, Europe, Asia, Australia

Context: influences
content research questions

In the context of international digitization initiatives by libraries to provide access to cultural heritage:

What is cultural heritage?

What do we mean by “access”?

What about the two thirds of the world’s population who do not yet have internet access?

In the context of information literacy, which (if any) existing models would be applicable to teaching cultural heritage?

Content: research questions
content literature review

Sought definitions for cultural heritage, found none in the library literature

In seeking more understanding of cultural heritage, was led

to explore the treatment of cultural heritage in:

    • Museum science
    • Archival Science
    • Digital information contexts and media studies

In seeking to better understand “access”, information literacy models were explored, as were the developments in lifelong learning, and critical thinking skills training

Content: literature review
content literature review1

An extensive literature review was required, and was undertaken in four main categories:

    • Exploring cultural heritage in the context of museums, archives and libraries
    • Cultural heritage within digital information contexts
    • Overview of information literacy models in the library context
    • Exploration of the literature on critical thinking and lifelong learning
Content: literature review
literature review some findings

Cultural heritage in the context of museums, archives and libraries:

    • Museums and Archives have engaged fully with their epistemological foundations and Postmodernism – context is thus essential to the treatment of cultural heritage, and advanced critiques of cultural heritage are available in the literature
    • Libraries have not engaged much with these issues, and view cultural heritage by shared assumption, rather than from critique and analysis
Literature review: some findings
literature review some findings cont

Cultural heritage in the context of museums, archives and libraries (continued):

    • Museums and archives have critiqued the elements of memory and contested history extensively, and these are core to the presentation of cultural heritage (especially in selecting materials to digitize)
    • Libraries thus have much to learn from Museums and Archives in the field of cultural heritage
Literature review: some findings (cont)
literature review some findings cont1

Cultural heritage within digital information contexts:

The most noteworthy findings in the context of the development of the model are:

    • the factor of digital content being able to be manipulated and changed, raising doubts on the integrity of information,
    • the instability of data in a continuum of information flux where important contextual narratives can disappear,
    • the role of communications media in representing reality, necessitating the development of media literacy skills,
    • issues surrounding the ethical use of information, moral rights to cultural heritage, intellectual property rights, the digital divide, and social behaviours in the digital domain.
Literature review: some findings (cont)
literature review some findings cont2

Models of Information Literacy stages and processes

The Big6 ™

Stripling and Pitts research process model (REACTS)

Pathways to knowledge Information Skills model (Pappas and Tepe)

Digital Information Fluency model (21CIF)

Information search process model (Kuhlthau)

Models of Information Literacy standards, competencies and performance indicators

SCONUL Information Skills model (Seven Pillars)

ACRL Information literacy competency standards for higher education

ANZIL Information Skills model

Digital Information Fluency model (21CIF)

UNESCO Information Literacy indicators

Literature review: some findings (cont)
literature review some findings cont3

Information Literacy (cont)

    • In general, the standards, competencies and performance indicators outlined were found to be too advanced for an informal environmental context of lifelong learning and are more applicable to formal learning environments, such as schools and universities. It was found to be preferable to rather delineate learning outcomes, as opposed to performance standards and measures.
    • One of the most crucial aspects of the information literacy skills package is that of critical evaluation of information, and in the context of cultural heritage, cultural predispositions are especially relevant.
Literature review: some findings (cont)
literature review some findings cont4

Critical thinking and lifelong learning:

Drew from research in museums and archives, as well as from educational psychology, and writers on critical thinking skills.

The key factors relevant to the development of the model included:

      • training in critical thinking skills, while at the same time ensuring that this training is culturally sensitive;
      • being aware of the different theories and styles of learning and deciding which is most suitable for use in terms of the learners; striving for specific outcomes in the context of free choice lifelong learning (as opposed to learning in formal educational institutions such as schools)
      • aiming to develop fluid intelligence as a complement to existing crystallised intelligence, and the development of worldview literacy.

The development of Personal Meaning Mapping was found to most applicable to a generic model as a preferred method of outcomes measurement

Literature review: some findings (cont)
information literacy and cultural heritage a generic model for lifelong learning

The model has been developed for use by museums, archives and libraries (public and national) and other cultural heritage institutions to facilitate the teaching of information literacy and cultural heritage to the general public

The model leads to inevitable further convergence of museums, archives and libraries and other cultural heritage institutions

It is generic and contextually fluid, and can be applied in Western, Slavic (Russian), Asian, Islamic, Latin American and African countries

Information literacy and cultural heritage: a generic model for lifelong learning
information literacy and cultural heritage a generic model for lifelong learning1

The five categories of the model are:

Catalysts

Components

Core processes and tasks,

Generic learning outcomes

Contextual fluidity.

Information literacy and cultural heritage: a generic model for lifelong learning
the way forward

Generic model developed

  • 2013: application and adaption of the model to local context
    • Triangulated research (qualitative and quantitative)
    • Sampling a challenge, due to lack of accurate patron records in these institutions
    • Surveys of users in local museums, archives and libraries (questionnaires already developed)
    • Follow up interviews for qualitative enrichment
    • Collation and synthesis of data into final finding
    • Provision of a model of Information Literacy and Cultural Heritage for Lifelong Learning for the South African context
The way forward
slide37

Thank you for your attention.

Kim Baker

E-mail: kbaker.research21c@gmail.com

Twitter: iKbaker