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Fasciola hepatica. Cris Scott and Angel Knopick. Liver rot and you!. Until 1300 thought to be a leech From 1970 to 1995, about 300,000 cases were reported in 61 countries. 2.4 million are infected and 160 million more at risk 2009 evidence of an emerging problem?

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fasciola hepatica

Fasciolahepatica

Cris Scott and Angel Knopick

liver rot and you
Liver rot and you!
  • Until 1300 thought to be a leech
  • From 1970 to 1995, about 300,000 cases were reported in 61 countries.
  • 2.4 million are infected and 160 million more at risk
  • 2009 evidence of an emerging problem?
  • In regions of Bolivia, 38% of children ages 5 to 19 may be infected.
classification taxonomy
Classification/Taxonomy
  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  • Class: Trematoda
  • Order: Echinostomida
  • Family: Fasciolidae
  • Genus: Fasciola
  • Species: hepatica
geographic range
Geographic Range
  • WORLDWIDE!
    • Human infections: Europe (especially France, Spain, Portugal), North Africa, South America (especially Bolivia), Cuba, United States
    • Need temperate, slow-moving, or standing water
      • urbanization
what is affected aka hosts
What is affected?? aka…HOSTS
  • Definitive hosts: Sheep, cattle, buffalo, goats, and rabbits
  • Intermediate hosts: Snail
    • Fossariamodicella or Stagnicolabulimoides
  • Accidental hosts: Humans??
morphology
Morphology
  • Adult
    • One of the largest flukes in the world
      • Average is 30 mm long and 13 mm wide
    • Leaf/cone shaped
    • 1 posterior and 1 anterior sucker
  • Egg
    • Average 140 µm long and 75 µm wide
life cycle
Life Cycle
  • Eggs from human or other host are passed in feces: no embryo.
  • Eggs are released into water: embryo.
  • Eggs hatch and miracidia are released.
  • Miracidia invade a snail (intermediate host). In the snail, the parasite undergoes three levels of development: Sporocyst, Rediae, and Cercariae.
  • The cercariae are excreted from the snail and encyts as metacercariae on aquatic vegetation (lose tails).
  • Cattle and sheep acquire the parasite by eating the vegetation containing the metacercariae.
  • Humans normally become infected by eating contaminated watercress.
  • The metacercariaeexcyst in the duodenum.
  • The metacercariae migrate through the intestinal wall, the peritoneal cavity, and the liver into the biliary ducts
  • They develop into adult flukes, and eggs are excreted in the feces.
fascioliasis infection by liver flukes
Fascioliasis: infection by liver flukes
  • Humans:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Fever
    • Eye infection- blindness
    • Jaundice
    • Eosinophilia
    • Diarrhea
    • Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
    • Skin rash
    • Anemia
  • Animals
    • Acute Type I: > 5000 ingested metacercariae, quick death without clinical signs
    • Acute Type II: 1000- 5000 metacercariae, slowly die
    • Subacute: 800 – 1000 metacercariae, anemia, weight loss, and death,
    • Chronic: 200 – 800 metacercariae, bottle jaw, emaciation, weight loss, and edema
diagnosis
Diagnosis
  • Liver blockage coincides with the consumption of watercress
  • Eggs in stool
  • Fast-ELISA
  • False results are possible when

patients have eaten infected liver

and F. hepatica eggs pass through the feces

    • Liver free diet
  • Early diagnosis is essential to prevent irreparable damage to the liver
control and treatment
Control and Treatment
  • Avoid “wild” watercress
  • Thoroughly cook liver
  • Education on eating uncooked

aquatic plants (kjosco)

  • Control host reservoir populations
  • Control snail populations
  • Triclabendazole (drug of choice) & Rafoxanide
vaccines
Vaccines
  • Proteases secreted immunizing antigens
    • Proteases/hemoglobin: egg viability reduced
    • Cysteine proteases: worms reduced 75%

economic importance
Economic Importance
  • Infection leads to mortality, reduction of milk and meat production
  • Leads to secondary bacterial infections
  • In Montana, 17% of cattle livers were infected
  • In Mexico, over 400,000 out of 6 million cattle slaughtered were confiscated
references
References
  • CDC: http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/fascioliasis.htm, 15 Feb 2011
  • NIH: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8589147\, 15 Feb 2011
  • Wiki: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fasciolosis , 15 Feb 2011
  • WHO: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/bulletin/1995/Vol73-No3/bulletin_1995_73(3)_397-401.pdf, 15 Feb 2011
  • WHO: http://www.who.int/neglected_diseases/integrated_media/integrated_media_fascioliasis/en/, 15 Feb 2011
  • Roberts, Larry S., Gerald D. Schmidt, and John Janovy. Gerald D. Schmidt & Larry S. Roberts' Foundations of Parasitology. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.