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Review for AAS. Meats Notes: Zoology. Vocabulary. Palatability : how a food appeals to the palate (smell, sight, taste, texture, etc.) Retail Cuts : small cuts of meat customers purchase at grocery stores Antemortem : before death

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review for aas
Review for AAS

Meats Notes: Zoology

  • Palatability: how a food appeals to the palate (smell, sight, taste, texture, etc.)
  • Retail Cuts: small cuts of meat customers purchase at grocery stores
  • Antemortem: before death
  • Wholesale Cuts: large sections of carcass ( half a hog or quarter of a beef) that are sold to stores who cut them into retail cuts
  • Rigor Mortis: a physiological process where muscles stiffen and lock into place
  • Exsanguination: removal of an animal’s blood
  • Postmortem: after death
Mastication: chewing
  • Meat (muscle?): any edible tissue from animals
  • Chine: the backbone of an animal
  • Kosher: any food prepared according to Jewish dietary law
  • Immobilization: to render an animal oblivious to pain
  • Aging: to let a carcass hang in a cool environment for a period of time to let enzymes break down meats
4 categories of meats
4 Categories of Meats
  • Red
  • Poultry
  • Seafood/Fish
  • Game
  • Red: beef, veal, lamb, pork (?)
  • Poultry: chicken, turkey, duck (?)
  • Fish: trout, crab, salmon, lobster, tilapia
  • Game: bear, turkey, duck, antelope, grouse, deer, moose, pheasant
meat names
Meat Names
  • Poultry
  • Beef
  • Meat
  • Veal
  • Mutton
  • Lamb
  • Pork
  • Chevon
  • Cabrito
history of the meat industry
History of the Meat Industry
  • Uncle Sam:
    • Sam Wilson a pork producer
  • Cincinatti was called
    • Porkopolis
  • Wall Street:
    • actually a wall erected in Manhattan to prevent pigs from entering town, kept the name ever since
history of the meat industry1
History of the Meat Industry
  • Packing Industry: went from an art to a science (why?)
  • The Packing Industry:
    • meats were salted and packed into barrels
  • Used to be one animal at a time, now:
    • Beef = 4,000/line/day
    • Pork = 8,000/line/day
    • Chickens = 70-80,000/line/day
history of the meat industry2
History of the Meat Industry
  • No federal inspection
  • Upton Sinclair’s book “The Jungle”
  • Meat Inspection Act of 1906
  • Humane Slaughter Act of 1957
meat industry
Meat Industry
  • Seven areas of inspection
  • Sanitation, antemortem, postmortem, control and restriction of condemned materials, product, laboratory inspection, marketing and labeling
the slaughter process
The slaughter process
  • Live inspection
  • Immobilization
  • Humane slaughter act
  • Bolt, electricity, gas
  • No pain
  • Heart must continue pumping

Kosher Slaughter:

~ Any food prepared according to Jewish dietary law

~Are exempt from stunning the animal but must be done

as humanely as possible

~Must be from religiously acceptable animals

~Meats are undesirable if improperly slaughtered, are not

cloven hooved, etc. called non kosher

~Kosher foods have a mark (Circle U)

~Area must be blessed by a rabbi, only the forequarters can

be used because sciatic nerve in hindquarters

continuation of slaughter process
Continuation of Slaughter Process
  • Exsanguination
  • Slit the throat, done quickly to prevent hemorrhaging or spots in the meat from ruptured blood vessels
  • Gut the animal, save edible organs (liver is the most common edible organ)
  • Internal organs are inspected for health problems, each carcass for consumption has to be inspected
processing the carcass
Processing the Carcass
  • Carcasses are split
  • Cooler
  • rigor mortis (6-12 hours for beef and lamb, 30m-3hours for pork)
  • Enzymes and microorganisms break down tissue
  • Rigor – Relax = Meat
when does meat become muscle
When does Meat become Muscle?
  • After the rigor/relax process!!!
  • Why hang a carcass?
    • Over a week
    • Enzymes and microorganisms break down meats
    • Increase palatability and flavor and tenderness
meats are good
Meats are Good!
  • Meats taste good because of intramuscular fat
    • marbling
  • This is fat within the meats, not globs that you can cut off

Antimortem Effects that can affect meat quality:

A. Feed

B. Genetics

C. Sex/Age

D. Stress

E. Disease

***Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS) is a stress that actually ruins the meat of an animal and causes the meat to be (PSE) pale, soft and excudative (watery)

*** DDF or dry, dark and firm is a stress condition in cattle causing “dark cutters”


Postmortem effects that can affect meat quality:

~heating and cooling is the main one!


Where do steaks and chops come from?

~the loin of the animal